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Afghanistan

Executive Summary of the Battle of Takur Ghar

Released through the Department of Defense, May 24, 2002

In the early morning hours of March 4, 2002, on a mountaintop called Takur Ghar in southeastern Afghanistan, al Qaeda soldiers fired on an MH-47E helicopter carrying a Special Operations Forces (SOF) reconnaissance element. This fire resulted in a Navy SEAL, ABH1 Neal Roberts, falling out of the helicopter, and began a chain of events culminating in one of the most intense small-unit firefights of the war against terrorism; the death of all the al Qaeda terrorists defending the mountain top; and, sadly, resulting also in the death of seven U.S. servicemen. Despite these losses, the U.S. forces involved in this fight again distinguished themselves by conspicuous bravery. Their countless acts of heroism demonstrated the best of America’s Special Operations Forces (SOF) as Army, Navy and Air Force special operators fought side by side to save one of their own, and each other, and in the process secured the mountain top and inflicted serious loss on the al Qaeda.

U.S. SOF had been monitoring for well over a month a large-scale pocket of forces in the Shah-e-Kot valley, southeast of Gardez, Afghanistan. In February, the headquarters for U.S. ground forces in Afghanistan, TF MOUNTAIN, commanded by MG Hagenback, conceived a classic military Òhammer and anvilÓ maneuver”;code-named Operation ANACONDA”;to clear out this threat. U.S. and Afghan forces in Gardez would push from the West in an effort to clear an area of reported high concentrations of al Qaeda in the western part of the Shah-e-Kot valley. ANACONDA planners believed this maneuver would cause the enemy to flee east into the blocking positions of awaiting American soldiers from the 10 th Mountain and 101st Airborne Divisions located in the eastern sector of the valley. Augmenting the conventional forces would be small reconnaissance teams. These teams were drawn from U.S. and Coalition SOF – they included U.S. Navy SEALs, U.S. Army Special Forces, and U.S. Air Force special tactics operators. The plan was to position these reconnaissance (ÒrecceÓ) teams at strategic locations where they would establish observation posts (OPs) to provide information on enemy movements and direct air strikes against observed enemy forces. This was done in several locations resulting directly in effective airstrikes on observed al Qaeda positions and the death of hundreds of al Qaeda in the Sahi-Kowt area. ABH1 Neil Roberts served in one of these reconnaissance teams.

In war, however, things rarely go exactly as planned – the enemy has a “vote”.

Operation ANACONDA proved to be no exception. Rather than flee, these disciplined and well trained al Qaeda soldiers stood and fought, and at times were reinforced ­ all along a series of draws and trails at the southern end of the valley near Marzak, dubbed the “ratline.” The enemy halted the Afghan forces pushing east toward “the Whale” ­ a distinctive terrain feature southeast of Gardez ­ and the Afghan forces then withdrew back to Gardez. Because of a brief period of bad weather and the unexpectedly heavy enemy resistance, only a portion of the TF MOUNTAIN troops inserted into their intended positions on D-Day. Some of those that did insert, fought under intense mortar and small arms fire. SOF, well hidden in their observation posts, used direct fire weapons, and coordinated close air support bombing onto enemy fighting positions. This provided some relief for the TF MOUNTAIN forces, especially in the south at HLZ Ginger east of Marzak. MG Hagenbeck repositioned his soldiers to the northern end of the Shah-e-Kot valley and attacked the al Qaeda from this direction. As the battle became more fluid, TF MOUNTAIN recognized the need to put U.S. “eyes” on the southern tip of the valley and the “ratline.” They needed additional observation posts near HLZ Ginger to provide surveillance and to call in U.S. air power on the numerous concentrations of enemy forces. A 10,000-foot, snow-capped mountain, named Takur Ghar, appeared to U.S. planners as a perfect location for an observation post. It dominated the southern approaches to the valley and offered excellent visibility into Marzak, two kilometers to the West. The mountaintop also provided an unobstructed view of the “Whale” on the other side of the valley. Takur Ghar was a perfect site for an observation post, and unfortunately, the enemy thought so too. The enemy had installed a well-concealed, fortified force, which included a heavy machine gun perfectly positioned to shoot down coalition aircraft flying in the valley below.

On 2 March, 2002, U.S. forces began planning to insert forces into two observation posts the following night. Two MH-47Es from 2nd Battalion, 160 th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) would insert two teams; one MH-47E – Razor 04, would emplace a team to the north while the other MH-47E – Razor 03, would deploy a team of U.S. SEALs and an Air Force combat controller (CCT) on Takur Ghar. Late the next evening, the two helicopters took off from their base north of “the box,” as the ANACONDA operational area became known to U.S. soldiers.

At approximately 0300 local time, Razor 03, carrying ABH1 Roberts’ team, approached its HLZ in a small saddle atop Takur Ghar. Originally planned to go in earlier to an offset HLZ, maintenance problems with one of the helicopters and a nearby B-52 strike in support of TF MOUNTAIN delayed the insert. As Razor 03 approached, both the pilots and the men in the back observed fresh tracks in the snow, goatskins, and other signs of recent human activity. Immediately, the pilots and team discussed a mission abort, but it was too late. An RPG struck the side of the aircraft, wounding one crewman, while machinegun bullets ripped through the fuselage, cutting hydraulic and oil lines. Fluid spewed about the ramp area of the helicopter. The pilot struggled to get the Chinook off the landing zone and away from the enemy fire. Neil Roberts stood closest to the ramp, poised to exit onto the landing zone. Roberts and an aircrew member were knocked off balance by the explosions and the sudden burst of power applied by the pilot. As Neil and the crewman reached to steady each other, both slipped on the oil-soaked ramp and fell out of the helicopter. As the pilots fought to regain control of the helicopter, other crewmembers pulled the tethered crewmember back into the aircraft. Un-tethered, Neil fell approximately 5-10 feet onto the snowy mountaintop below. The crew managed to keep the aircraft aloft until it became apparent it could fly no more. The pilots executed a controlled crash landing some seven kilometers north of where Petty Officer Roberts fell off the helicopter. He was now alone and in the midst of an enemy force.

Nobody knows exactly what transpired over the next few minutes on that mountaintop. There were no surveillance aircraft over the mountaintop at the time Roberts fell from the helicopter. Based on forensic evidence subsequently gathered from the scene, we believe Roberts survived the short fall from the helicopter, likely activated his signaling device, and engaged the enemy with his squad automatic weapon (SAW).

He was mortally injured by gunfire as the closed in on him.

Meanwhile, following Razor 03’s controlled crash landing, the SEALs did a quick head count that confirmed what they already knew‹Petty Officer Roberts was missing. TSgt John Chapman, the team’s Air Force combat controller, immediately contacted a nearby AC-130 for protection. A short time later, Razor 04, after inserting its “recce” team, arrived on the scene and picked up the downed crewmen and SEALs, taking them to Gardez. The SEALs and pilots of Razor 04 quickly formulated a plan to go back in and rescue Roberts, despite the fact that they knew a force of heavily armed al Qaeda manned positions on Takur Ghar. An AC-130 gunship moved to Takur Ghar and reported seeing what they believed to be Roberts, surrounded by four to six other individuals. Knowing how the al Qaeda brutally treated prisoners, Roberts’ teammates and commanders knew that time was running out on Neil Roberts. Razor 04, with its cargo of five SEALs and TSgt Chapman, departed Gardez and returned to Roberts’ last known location on the mountaintop. There were no known nearby, suitable landing zones – other than where Roberts had fallen. Inserting the rescue team at the base of the mountain was not an option ­ they would lose valuable time making the 2 to 3 hour climb up the mountain. Their only real chance of success was to reinsert in the same proximity of where Razor 03 had taken intense enemy fire.

At about 0500 local time, Razor 04 approached the HLZ atop of Takur Ghar. Despite enemy fire cutting through the MH-47E, all six members of what had been a “recce” element were safely inserted, and the helicopter, although damaged, returned to base. Once on the ground near Roberts’ last known location, and using the waning darkness for cover, the team assessed the situation and moved quickly to the high ground. The most prominent features on the hilltop were a large rock and tree. As they approached the tree, TSgt Chapman saw two enemy personnel in a fortified position under the tree. TSgt Chapman and a nearby SEAL opened fire, killing both enemy personnel. The Americans immediately began taking fire from another bunker position some 20 meters away. A burst of gunfire hit Chapman, mortally wounding him. The SEALs returned fire and threw hand grenades into the enemy bunker position to their immediate front. As the firefight continued, two of the SEALs were wounded by enemy gunfire and grenade fragmentation. Finding themselves in a deadly crossfire with 2 of their teammates seriously wounded and one killed and clearly outnumbered, the SEALs decided to disengage. They shot two more al Qaeda as they moved off the mountain peak to the Northeast – with one of the wounded SEALs taking “point.” As they moved partly down the side of the mountain for protection, a SEAL contacted the overhead AC-130‹ GRIM 32‹and requested fire support. GRIM 32 responded with covering fire as the SEALs withdrew.

Back at the US staging base, the Ranger quick reaction force (QRF) – a designated unit on standby for just such situations, was put on alert and directed to move forward to a safe landing zone at Gardez. This was to position them closer to the fight, within 15 minutes response time. The 23-man QRF loaded on two waiting MH-47Es: Razor 01 and Razor 02. Razor 01 carried 10 Rangers, an enlisted tactical air controller (ETAC), a combat controller (CCT) and a Pararescueman (PJ). Razor 02 carried 10 Rangers. Taking off from their base, the QRF had little knowledge about what was actually happening on Takur Ghar due to very limited communications. As the QRF flew toward Gardez, the embattled SEALs, withdrawing from Takur Ghar, requested their immediate assistance. Headquarters approved the request and directed the QRF to proceed quickly to the problem area and insert their team at an “offset” HLZ – not the same landing zone where Razors 03 and 04 had taken fire. Due to intermittently functioning aircraft communications equipment, the Rangers and helicopter crews never received the “offset” instructions which also hampered attempts to provide tactical situational awareness to the QRF commander aboard Razor 01. Communications problems too plagued headquarters’ attempts to determine the true condition of the SEAL team and their exact location. As a consequence, the Rangers went forward believing that the SEALs were still located on top of Takur Ghar, proceeding to the same location where both Razors 03 and 04 had taken enemy fire.

At about 0545 local, Razor 01 and 02 flew toward the Takur Ghar landing zone.

At this point, the QRF was unaware that a squad of al Qaeda fighters, who by this time had already killed two Americans, were poised and expecting their arrival. The sun was just beginning to crest the mountains to the east when Razor 01 approached from the south. On final approach, an RPG round exploded on the right side of the helicopter, while small arms fire peppered it from three directions. The pilots attempted to abort the landing, but the aircraft had taken too much damage. The right side mini-gunner, SGT Phil Svitak, opened fire but was hit by an AK-47 round and died almost immediately. The helicopter dropped ten feet and landed hard on the snow-covered slope of the landing zone. Both pilots were seriously wounded as they crash landed their crippled aircraft.

The helicopter nose was pointing up the hill toward the main enemy bunkers – where TSgt Chapman had been killed. The impact of the crash knocked everyone to the helicopter floor. The Rangers, CCT and the eight-man Chinook crew struggled under intense fire to get up and out of the helicopter fuselage. The rear door gunner and a Ranger opened fire out the back of the aircraft, killing an al Qaeda soldier. SGT Brad Crose and CPL Matt Commons survived the initial landing but were struck and killed by enemy fire as they exited the rear of the aircraft. Another Ranger, SPC Marc Anderson, was hit while still inside the aircraft, dying instantly.

Despite the intense small arms fire, the PJ, Senior Airman Jason Cunningham, and another medic remained inside the helicopter and began treating the wounded. At the same time, the surviving Rangers quickly assembled at the helicopter ramp to assess the situation and fix the enemy locations. Using their M-4s, the Rangers killed two more al Qaeda, including an RPG gunner. Using natural rock outcroppings as cover, they began maneuvering to better positions. The Ranger platoon leader formulated a plan to assault the bunkers on top of the hill – but after an initial attempt to do so, he quickly realized he would need a larger force. Instead, the Air Force combat controller worked to get close air support on station. Within minutes, U.S. aircraft began to bomb and strafe the enemy positions, dropping 500lb bombs within 50 meters of the SOF positions. By 7 am local time, the Rangers were no longer in danger of being overrun. They consolidated their position and established a casualty collection point to the rear of the helicopter. After the shootdown of Razor 01, Razor 02 was directed to move to a safe area and await further instructions. Later, Razor 02 inserted the other half of the QRF with its force of 10 Rangers and an additional Navy SEAL at an “offset” landing zone, down the mountain some 800 meters east and over 2,000 feet below the mountaintop. The Navy SEAL linked up with the SEAL “recce” element, which was by now some 1000 meters from the mountaintop. The Rangers¹ movement up the hill was a physically demanding 2-hour effort under heavy mortar fire and in thin mountain air. They climbed the 45-70 degree slope, most of it covered in three feet of snow, weighted down by their weapons, body armor and equipment.

By 1030 am local time, the men were completely exhausted, but still had to defeat the enemy controlling the top of the hill – a mere 50 meters from their position. With the arrival of the ten men of Razor 02, the Rangers prepared to assault the enemy bunkers. As the Air Force CCT called in a last airstrike on the enemy bunkers and with two machineguns providing suppression fire, seven Rangers stormed the hill as quickly as they could in the knee-deep snow – shooting and throwing grenades. Within minutes, the Rangers took the hill, killing multiple al Qaeda. The Rangers began to consolidate their position on the top of the mountain, which the platoon leader deemed more defendable -and safer for their wounded. The Rangers, Army crewmembers, and Air Force personnel began moving the wounded up the steep slope; it took four to six men to move one casualty ­ it was a difficult and slow process.

As the soldiers moved the wounded, additional al Qaeda began firing from a small ridgeline some 400 meters to the rear of the downed helicopter’s position. The wounded at the casualty collection point were completely exposed to the enemy fire, as were the PJ and medic tending to them. While the Rangers maneuvered to return fire, enemy fire struck the Army medic and PJ at the casualty collection point as they worked on their patients. Rangers and helicopter crewmen alike risked their lives, exposing themselves to enemy fire, to pull the wounded to the relative safety of nearby rocks. Once again, the combat controller called in close air support, and a few well-placed bombs and Ranger machinegun fire eventually silenced the enemy fire. Unfortunately, this attack claimed another life. The stricken PJ, Senior Airman Jason Cunningham, eventually succumbed to his wounds. Throughout the ensuing hours, the Americans continued to take sporadic sniper and mortar fire.

The Rangers consolidated their position, moved their dead and wounded to the top of the hill, and waited for a night extraction. The enemy air defense and ground situation in the vicinity of Takur Ghar did not lend itself to another daylight rescue attempt using helicopters. Throughout the day, observation posts on adjoining hilltops, manned by Australian and American SOF, called in fire on al Qaeda forces attempting to reinforce the mountaintop.

At about 2015 local time, four helicopters from the 160 th SOAR extracted both the Rangers on Takur Ghar and the SEALs down the mountainside. Two hours later, the survivors and their fallen comrades were back at their base. A team of experienced medical staff of the 274 th Forward Surgical Team, operating out of the Bagram airport tower, awaited the eleven wounded personnel. Their quick and professional medical treatment likely saved the hand of a wounded pilot. By morning, all the wounded were headed to hospitals in Germany and elsewhere. Operation ANACONDA would continue for another 19 days. These same units continued to play a decisive role in defeating the al Qaeda in the largest Coalition ground combat operation thus far in the war against terrorism.

AWARDS AND CRITERIA FOR EACH

Silver Star

For gallantry in action. The required gallantry, while of a lesser degree than that required for the award of the Medal of Honor or Distinguished Service Cross, must, nevertheless, have been performed with marked distinction.

Bronze Star Medal with “V” Device

For acts of heroism not involving participating in aerial flight, which are of lesser degree than required for the award of the Silver Star.

Bronze Star Medal

For meritorious service or achievement, not involving participation in aerial flight. Awards may be made to recognize single acts of merit or meritorious service. The required achievement or service, while of lesser degree than that required for the award of Legion of Merit, must nevertheless have been meritorious and accomplished with distinction.

CITATIONS

The President of the United States of America, authorized by an Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, has awarded the

SILVER STAR

STAFF SERGEANT ARIN K. CANON

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR GALLANTRY:

in action against the enemy during the period of 3 March 2002 to 4 March 2002, in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. Staff Sergeant Canon’s valorous actions while in direct contact with enemy forces and in the face of extreme duress during the successful rescue of Special Operators contributed immeasurably to the success of the mission and to the saving of additional lives. Staff Sergeant Canon led the support element during the initial assault on an enemy fortified position.  His leadership was instrumental in suppressing the objective and protecting the assault enemy. Immediately following this action, he coordinated the defense of the entire objective, placing personnel and key weapon systems that enabled the platoon to defeat two enemy counterattacks. The gallantry displayed by Staff Sergeant Canon during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards of valor.  Through his distinctive accomplishments, Staff Sergeant Canon reflected credit upon himself, the United States Army, and the Department of Defense.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Executive Order, 24 August 1962 has awarded the

BRONZE STAR
WITH “V” DEVICE

SPECIALIST CHRIS M. CUNNINGHAM

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR EXCEPTIONALLY MERITORIOUS SERVICE:

While serving as a squad automatic weapon gunner during Operation Enduring Freedom. Specialist Cunningham’s valorous actions, in particular during a battle on 4 March 2002, contributed immeasurably to the tremendous success of a Task Force. Specialist Cunningham was an integral member of the assault force that attacked a fortified enemy position to relieve the pressure on Chalk 1, who had been fighting the enemy for over two hours.  Specialist Cunningham was instrumental in providing security for the aid and litter teams and facilitated the consolidation of all casualties to a safe area. The gallantry displayed by Specialist Cunningham during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards for valor.  Specialist Cunningham’s accomplishments reflect great credit upon him, this command and the United States Army.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Executive Order, 24 August 1962 has awarded the

BRONZE STAR
WITH “V” DEVICE

SPECIALIST OSCAR J. ESCANO

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR EXCEPTIONALLY MERITORIOUS SERVICE:

While serving as a M203 gunner during Operation Enduring Freedom. Specialist Escano’s valorous actions, in particular during a battle on 4 March 2002, contributed immeasurably to the tremendous success of a Task Force.  Specialist Escano was an integral member of the assault force that moved over 2 hours through arduous terrain to destroy an enemy fortified position and relieve the pressure on Chalk 1. Additionally, Specialist Escano assisted in providing security for aid and litter teams during two counterattacks by enemy forces. The gallantry displayed by Specialist Escano during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards for valor. Specialist Escano’s accomplishments reflect great credit upon him, this command and the United States Army.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Executive Order, 24 August 1962 has awarded the

BRONZE STAR
WITH “V” DEVICE

SERGEANT PATRICK GEORGE

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR EXCEPTIONALLY MERITORIOUS SERVICE:

While serving as a team leader during Operation Enduring Freedom. Sergeant George’s valorous actions, in particular during a battle on 4 March 2002, contributed immeasurably to the tremendous success of a Task Force.  Sergeant George moved for two hours with Chalk 2 over arduous terrain at an extremely high altitude and under enemy fire. Sergeant George led the assault on an enemy fortified position to relieve the enemy pressure on Chalk 1. Additionally, he played a critical role in securing the objective and consolidating the casualties. The gallantry displayed by Sergeant George during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards for valor. Sergeant George’s accomplishments reflect great credit upon him, this command and the United States Army.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Executive Order, 24 August 1962 has awarded the

BRONZE STAR
WITH “V” DEVICE

PRIVATE FIRST CLASS DAVID B. GILLIAM

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR EXCEPTIONALLY MERITORIOUS SERVICE:

While serving as a M240B machine gunner during Operation Enduring Freedom. Private First Class Gilliam’s valorous actions, in particular during a battle on 4 March 2002, contributed immeasurably to the tremendous success of a Task Force. Private First Class Gilliam immediately exited the aircraft and suppressed the enemy.  He was able to suppress the fortified enemy bunker while a four-man element assaulted the position. Private First Class Gilliam played an integral role in the entire operation by providing suppression on enemy positions to facilitate the capture of the high ground, the defeat of two enemy counterattacks and the consolidation of friendly wounded. His gallantry during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards for valor. Private First Class Gilliam’s accomplishments reflect great credit upon him, this command and the United States Army.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Executive Order, 24 August 1962 has awarded the

BRONZE STAR
WITH “V” DEVICE

SPECIALIST RANDY J. PAZDER

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR EXCEPTIONALLY MERITORIOUS SERVICE:

While serving as a M240B machine gunner during Operation Enduring Freedom. Specialist Pazder’s valorous actions, in particular during a battle on 4 March 2002, contributed immeasurably to the tremendous success of a Task Force.  Specialist Pazder moved with Chalk 2 over arduous terrain at an extremely high altitude and under heavy enemy fire to relieve enemy pressure on Chalk 1. Specialist Pazder suppressed the enemy fortified and facilitated the assault on the enemy position. The gallantry displayed by Specialist Pazder during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards for valor. Through his distinctive accomplishments, Specialist Pazder’s actions reflect great credit upon him, this command and the United States Army.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Executive Order, 24 August 1962 has awarded the

BRONZE STAR
WITH “V” DEVICE

SPECIALIST JONAS O. POLSON

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR EXCEPTIONALLY MERITORIOUS SERVICE:

While serving as a squad automatic weapon gunner during Operation Enduring Freedom. Specialist Polson’s actions, in particular during a battle on 4 March 2002, contributed immeasurably to the tremendous success of a Task Force.  Specialist Polson moved under direct and indirect enemy fire to link up with Chalk 1, which was under enemy fire for over two hours. As part of the Assault Force, he moved over arduous terrain at an extremely difficult altitude to provide integral suppressive fires on the enemy. The gallantry displayed by Specialist Polson during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards for valor. Specialist Polson’s accomplishments reflect great credit upon him, this command and the United States Army.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Executive Order, 24 August 1962 has awarded the

BRONZE STAR
WITH “V” DEVICE

SPECIALIST OMAR J. VELA

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR EXCEPTIONALLY MERITORIOUS SERVICE:

While serving as an M240B assistant gunner during Operation Enduring Freedom. Specialist Vela’s valorous actions, in particular during a battle on 4 March 2002, contributed immeasurably to the tremendous success of a Task Force. Specialist Vela moved with Chalk 2 to relieve the enemy pressure on Chalk 1. The assault force movement culminated in an assault on an enemy fortified position where Specialist Vela was integral to suppressing the enemy. Specialist Vela assisted the aid and litter teams and provided security under a withering enemy counterattack. The gallantry displayed by Specialist Vela during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards for valor. Specialist Vela’s accomplishments reflect great credit upon him, this command and the United States Army.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by an Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, has awarded the

SILVER STAR

SERGEANT MATTHEW LAFRENZ

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR GALLANTRY:

in action against the enemy during the period of 3 March 2002 to 4 March 2002, while serving as a Platoon Medic in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. Sergeant LaFrenz’s valorous actions while in direct contact with enemy forces and in the face of extreme duress during the successful rescue of Special Operators contributed immeasurably to the success of the mission and to the saving of additional lives.  In five separate occasions, Sergeant LaFrenz exposed himself to enemy fire while providing medical support to casualties. Sergeant LaFrenz was able to consolidation all casualties within four hours providing aid to nine casualties in an exhausting frigid environment.  The gallantry displayed by Sergeant LaFrenz during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards of valor. Through his distinctive accomplishments, Sergeant LaFrenz reflected credit upon himself, the United States Army, and the Department of Defense.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by an Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, has awarded the

SILVER STAR

SPECIALIST AARON LANCASTER-TOTTEN

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR GALLANTRY:

in action against the enemy during the period of 3 March 2002 to 4 March 2002, while serving as a Squad Automatic Weapon Gunner in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. Specialist Lancaster-Totten’s valorous actions while in direct contact with enemy forces and in the face of extreme duress during the successful rescue of Special Operators contributed immeasurably to the success of the mission and to the saving of additional lives. While exiting the aircraft, Specialist Lancaster-Totten was severely wounded by shrapnel. With total disregard for his well being, Specialist Lancaster-Totten continued to engage the enemy from a covered and concealed position.  His ability to provide suppressive fire enabled the assault element to break contact from the enemy. The gallantry displayed by Specialist Lancaster-Totten during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards of valor. Through his distinctive accomplishments, Specialist Lancaster-Totten reflected credit upon himself, the United States Army, and the Department of Defense.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by an Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, has awarded the

SILVER STAR

CAPTAIN NATHAN E. SELF

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR GALLANTRY:

in action against the enemy during the period of 3 March 2002 to 4 March 2002, while serving as a Platoon Leader in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. Captain Self’s valorous actions while in direct contact with enemy forces and in the face of extreme duress during the successful rescue of Special Operators contributed immeasurably to the success of the mission and to the saving of additional lives.  While exiting the aircraft, Captain Self was severely wounded in the thigh. With total disregard for his well being, he fought to the first covered and concealed position, engage the enemy with his weapon, gathering remaining combat effective Rangers, and began calling close air support on enemy locations. The gallantry displayed by Captain Self during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards of valor. Through his distinctive accomplishments, Captain Self reflected credit upon himself, the United States Army, and the Department of Defense.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by an Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, has awarded the

SILVER STAR

SERGEANT ERIC W. STEBNER

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR GALLANTRY:

in action against the enemy during the period of 3 March 2002 to 4 March 2002, while serving as a Squad Leader in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. Sergeant Stebner’s valorous actions while in direct contact with enemy forces and in the face of extreme duress during the successful rescue of Special Operators contributed immeasurably to the success of the mission and to the saving of additional lives. Sergeant Stebner organized an assault against an enemy fortified position. He led all aid and litter teams under withering enemy counterattack fire during consolidation of all casualties. This action took over four hours during which Sergeant Stebner personally exposed himself to enemy fire at least five times in order to save his fellow comrades. Through his distinctive accomplishments, Sergeant Stebner reflected credit upon himself, the United States Army, and the Department of Defense.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by an Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, has awarded the

SILVER STAR

SERGEANT JOSHUA J. WALKER

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR GALLANTRY:

in action against the enemy during the period of 3 March 2002 to 4 March 2002, while serving as a Fire Team Leader in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM.  Sergeant Walker’s valorous actions while in direct contact with enemy forces and in the face of extreme duress during the successful rescue of Special Operators contributed immeasurably to the success of the mission and to the saving of additional lives. Sergeant Walker immediately exited the aircraft and destroyed an enemy soldier who was shooting at his aircraft. He was able to suppress the enemy with his M4 carbine, an M249 squad automatic weapon, and an M203 grenade launcher.  Sergeant Walker was an integral part of a four-man assault force that moved up a deep slope, in knee-deep snow, through a hail of enemy fire in broad daylight. The gallantry displayed by Sergeant Walker during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards of valor. Through his distinctive accomplishments, Sergeant Walker reflected credit upon himself, the United States Army, and the Department of Defense.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by an Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, has awarded the

SILVER STAR

STAFF SERGEANT HARPER WILMOTH

UNITED STATES ARMY

FOR GALLANTRY:

in action against the enemy during the period of 3 March 2002 to 4 March 2002, while serving as a Squad Leader in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. Staff Sergeant Wilmoth’s valorous actions while in direct contact with enemy forces and in the face of extreme duress during the successful rescue of Special Operators contributed immeasurably to the success of the mission and to the saving of additional lives. Staff Sergeant Wilmoth coordinated the linkup with Chalk 1 over arduous terrain, at an extremely high altitude, and under enemy direct and indirect fire. After the linkup, Staff Sergeant Wilmoth organized the assault on an enemy fortified position. The gallantry displayed by Staff Sergeant Wilmoth during 18 hours of combat is in keeping with the highest standards of valor.  Through his distinctive accomplishments, Staff Sergeant Wilmoth reflected credit upon himself, the United States Army, and the Department of Defense.

 

 

Approved ASSAULT LANDING CREDITS for Operations IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF) and ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) para 7-25, AR 600-80-22

**Copies of the Permanent Orders (PO) may be obtained from the listed unit.  The PO will also be confirmed in the next published Department of the Army General Order (DAGO).

Unit Name

Type of Assault

Period

Location

ORDER/DAGO

Detachment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1845Z 19 October 2001 to 0014Z 20 October 2001

Helmand Desert, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 058-02, dtd 27 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1845Z 19 October 2001 to 0014Z 20 October 2001

Helmand Desert, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 058-02, dtd 27 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company A, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1845Z 19 October 2001 to 0014Z 20 October 2001

Helmand Desert, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 058-02, dtd 27 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company C, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1845Z 19 October 2001 to 0014Z 20 October 2001

Helmand Desert, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 058-02, dtd 27 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company B, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1800Z – 2334Z 13 November 2001

in the vicinity of Alimarden Kan-E-Bagat, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 058-02, dtd 27 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1345-1445Z 25 February 2003

near Chahar Borjak, Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 037-01, dtd 6 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company A, 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1345-1445Z 25 February 2003

near Chahar Borjak, Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 037-01, dtd 6 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company C, 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1345-1445Z 25 February 2003

near Chahar Borjak, Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 037-01, dtd 6 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company B, 3d Battalion, 504th Infantry

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1345-1445Z 25 February 2003

near Chahar Borjak, Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 037-01, dtd 6 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Company C, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1830-2230Z 24 March 2003

Northwestern desert region of Iraq, in the vicinity of the town of Al Qaim, near the Syrian boarder

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1830-2230Z 24 March 2003

Northwestern desert region of Iraq, in the vicinity of the town of Al Qaim, near the Syrian boarder

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, 24th Special Tactics Squadron (USAF)

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1830-2230Z 24 March 2003

Northwestern desert region of Iraq, in the vicinity of the town of Al Qaim, near the Syrian boarder

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Company A, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1835Z 28 March 2003 to 1200Z 29 March 2003

At H1 airfield in western Iraq, west of the Haditha Dam and the town of Haditha

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1835Z 28 March 2003 to 1200Z 29 March 2003

At H1 airfield in western Iraq, west of the Haditha Dam and the town of Haditha

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, 27th Engineer Battalion

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1835Z 28 March 2003 to 1200Z 29 March 2003

At H1 airfield in western Iraq, west of the Haditha Dam and the town of Haditha

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, 24th Special Tactics Squadron (USAF)

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1835Z 28 March 2003 to 1200Z 29 March 2003

At H1 airfield in western Iraq, west of the Haditha Dam and the town of Haditha

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

NOTE 1:  Orders awarding the Combat Parachutist Badge may be issued to those service members who participated in the combat jump and are authorized the Parachutist Badge.

NOTE 2:  In accordance with paragraph 6-8, AR 600-8-22, the Arrowhead Device, which denotes participation in a combat parachute jump, helicopter assault landing, combat glider landing, or amphibious assault landing, will be worn on the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) Expeditionary Medal.


Fallen Comrades

RANGERS KILLED IN ACTION:


GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM

A Company 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Matthew A. Commons, CPL

February 18, 1981 – March 4, 2002

Bradley S. Crose, SGT

August 4, 1979 – March 4, 2002

SPC John J. Edmunds 3/75 OEF

October 19, 2001

SPC Kristofor T. Stonesfier 3/75 OEF

October 19, 2001

SPC Marc A. Anderson 1/75 OEF

March 4, 2002

CPL Matthew A.  Commons 1/75 OEF

March 4, 2002

SGT Bradley S. Crose 1/75 OEF

March 4, 2002

SSG Nino D.  Livaudais 3/75 OIF

April 3, 2003

SPC Ryan P. Long 3/75 OIF

April 3, 2003

CPT Russell B. Rippetoe 3/75 OIF

April 3, 2003

CPL Andrew F. Chris 3/75 OIF

June 26, 2003

SGT Timothy M. Conneway 3/75 OIF

June 28, 2003

SGT Jay A. Blessing 2/75 OEF

November 14, 2003

SPC Patrick D. Tillman 2/75 OEF

April 22, 2004

PFC Nathan E. Stahl 2/75 OIF

September 21, 2004

CPL William M. Amundson 3/75 OEF

October 18, 2004

SGT Michael C. O’Neill* 3/75 OEF

November 21, 2004

PFC Damian J. Garza* 3/75 OEF

August 4, 2005

PVT John M. Henderson* 3/75 OEF

August 4, 2005

CPL Timothy M. Shea 3/75 OIF

August 25, 2005

PFC Dillon M. Jutras 3/75 OIF

October 28, 2005

*Classified as a non-battle death

 

GRENADA

Sergeant Randy E. Cline

Company A, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Killed in Action October 25, 1983

Sergeant Phillip S. Grenier

Company A, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Killed in Action October 25, 1983

Sergeant Kevin J. Lannon

Company A, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Killed in Action October 25, 1983

Private First Class Markin R. Maynard

Company A, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Killed in Action October 25, 1983

Sergeant Mark A. Rademacher

Company A, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Killed in Action October 25, 1983

Private First Class Russell L. Robinson

Company A, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Killed in Action October 25, 1983

Sergeant Stephen E. Slater

Company A, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Killed in Action October 25, 1983

Specialist Four Mark O. Yamane

Company A, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Killed in Action October 25, 1983

IRAQ

A Company 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment – April 03, 2003

Staff Sergeant Nino D. Livaudais

Specialist Ryan P. Long

Captain Russell B Rippetoe

 


REPUBLIC OF PANAMA

Staff Sergeant Larry Barnard

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action December 20, 1989

Private First Class Roy Brown, Jr.

Company A, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action December 20, 1989

Specialist Philip Lear

Company B, 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action December 20, 1989

Private First Class James W. Markwell

Company C, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action December 20, 1989

Private First Class John Mark Price

Company A, 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action December 20, 1989

 

SOMALIA

Corporal James M. Cavaco

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action: October 3, 1993

Sergeant James C. Joyce

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action: October 3, 1993

Specialist Richard W. Kowalewski

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action: October 3, 1993

Sergeant Dominick M. Pilla

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action: October 3, 1993

Sergeant Lorenzo M. Ruiz

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action: October 3, 1993

Corporal James E. Smith

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Killed in Action: October 3, 1993

 

RANGERS KILLED IN TRAINING

Private First Class Willie J. Cobb

Company A, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Drowning Accident: May 1, 1976

Specialist Four James E. Quick

Company B, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Parachute Accident: November 6, 1976

Command Sergeant Major Henry Caro

HHC, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Parachute Accident: November 6, 1976

Major James E. Bryan

HHC, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Aircraft Crash: September 6, 1977

Specialist Four William A. McTigue

Company A, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Live-Fire Exercise Accident: January 19, 1978

Private Michael J. Sanders

Company A, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Parachute Accident: January 25, 1980

Private Gilbert Alaniz, Jr.

Company A, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Parachute Accident: January 25, 1980

Private Second Class Kevin E. Langley

Company A, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

C-130 Crash: September 21, 1981

Private First Class Lonnie James Furr

Company A, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

C-130 Crash: September 21, 1981

Specialist Four John Phillip Critselous

Company C, HHC (attached), 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

C-130 Crash: September 21, 1981

Sergeant First Class Jimmie Douglas Bynum

HHC, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

C-130 Crash: September 21, 1981

Captain Gregory Eldon Gardner

HHC, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

C-130 Crash: September 21, 1981

Lieutenant Colonel William E. Powell

HHC, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

C-130 Crash: September 21, 1981

Specialist Four Vincent S. Barclay

Company A, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Parachute Accident: February 2, 1982

Sergeant Johnny W. Danford

Company A, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Parachute Accident: February 2, 1982

Specialist Four Robert A. Fortucci

Company B, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Drowning Accident: April 14, 1982

Specialist Four William C. Hayes

Company C, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Drowning Accident: April12, 1983

Private First Class Shawn L. Lau

Company C, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Live-Fire Accident: June 8, 1983

PVT Wesley B. McDavid

Company HHC, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Asphyxiation: May 1986

Captain Drew Harrington

Company B, 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Live-Fire Accident: December 16, 1984

Specialist Four Francis John Elder

Company C, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Drowning Accident: September 12, 1985

Specialist Four Russell D. Hobgood

Company A, 3rd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry

Live-Fire Accident: November 22, 1985

Private Michael D. Rudess

Company A, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Live-Fire Accident: July 7, 1986

Specialist Four Edgar Arthur Pratt, Jr.

Company A, 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute Accident: December 5, 1986

Sergeant Frank D. Winters

Company C, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Helicopter Crash: September 25, 1987

Specialist Four David W. Hughes

Company C, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Tree Fall Accident: September 3, 1988

Private First Class Toby John K.P. Young

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Bus Crash: January 28, 1991

Private First Class Michael K. Foley

Company C, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute Accident: July 11, 1991

Colonel John T. Keneally

Commander, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Helicopter Crash: October 29, 1992

Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth W. Stauss

Commander, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Helicopter Crash: October 29, 1992

First Sergeant Harvey L. Moore

Company C, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Helicopter Crash: October 29, 1992

Sergeant Blaine A. Mishak

HHC, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Helicopter Crash: October 29, 1992

 

Specialist Four Jeremy B. Bird

HHC, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Helicopter Crash: October 29, 1992

Sergeant Jeffrey A. Palmer

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Live-Fire Accident: November 18, 1992

Private First Class Christopher L. Brown

Company C, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Demolition Live-Fire Accident: October 18, 1993

Specialist Four Davis Ward Benson

Company C, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Results of 1991 Bus Crash: April 4, 1994

First Sergeant Glenn L. Harris

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Drowning Accident: December 4, 1994

Sergeant Alphonse J. Harness

Company C, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Fast Rope Accident: January 21, 1995

Private Greg M. Belletti

Company A, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Drowning Accident: October 30, 1995

A-STAN

Specialist Jonn Joseph Edmunds

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Non-hostile helicopter accident: October 19, 2001

Private 1st Class Kristofor T. Stonesifer

Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Non-hostile helicopter accident: October 19, 2001

Specialist Marc A. Anderson

Company A, 1st Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire: March 4, 2002

Sergeant Peter P. Crose

Company A, 1st Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire: March 4, 2002

Private 1st Class Matthew A. Commons

Company A, 1st Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire: March 4, 2002

Sergeant Jay A. Blessing

H&H Co., 2nd Bat., 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire – IED attack: November 14, 2003

Specialist Patrick D. Tillman

2nd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile – Friendly fire: April 22, 2004

Corporal William M. Amundson Jr.

3rd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Non-hostile – vehicle accident: October 19, 2004

Sergeant Michael C. O’Neill

3rd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Non-Hostile – injury: November 21, 2004

Private John M. Henderson Jr.

3rd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Non-hostile – vehicle accident (drowning): August 4, 2005

Private 1st Class Damian J. Garza

3rd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Non-hostile – vehicle accident (drowning): August 4, 2005

Private 1st Class Kristofer D.S. Thomas

3rd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Non-Hostile – Helicopter crash: February 18, 2007

Private 1st Class Ryan C. Garbs

3rd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Non-Hostile – Helicopter crash: February 18, 2007

Specialist George V. Libby

2nd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Non-hostile: August 20, 2007

Sergeant 1st Class David L. McDowell

2nd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire – small arms fire: April 29, 2008

Specialist Christopher Gathercole

2nd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire – small arms fire: May 26, 2008

Corporal Benjamin Stephen Kopp

3rd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Not Yet Reported: July 18, 2009

Private 1st Class Eric W. Hario

1st Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire – Small arms fire: August 29, 2009

Staff Sergeant Jason Sean Dahlke

1st Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire – Small arms fire: August 29, 2009

IRAQ

Captain Russell Brian Rippetoe

3rd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire – suicide bomber: April 3, 2003

Specialist Ryan Patrick Long

3rd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire – suicide bomber: April 3, 2003

Staff Sergeant Nino Dugue Livaudais

3rd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire – suicide bomber: April 3, 2003

Corporal Andrew F. Chris

Company B, 3rd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire: June 25, 2003

Sergeant Timothy M. Conneway

3rd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire – bomb: June 28, 2003

Private 1st Class Nathan E. Stahl

2nd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire – IED attack: September 21, 2004

Private 1st Class Dillon M. Jutras

3rd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire: October 28, 2005

Sergeant Dale G. Brehm

2nd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire – small arms fire: March 18, 2006

Sergeant James J. Regan

3rd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire – IED attack: February 9, 2007

Corporal Jason M. Kessler

C Company, 2nd BN, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire – RPG attack: July 30, 2007

Corporal Benjamin C. Dillon

3rd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire – small arms fire: October 7, 2007

Sergeant Steven C. Ganczewski

3rd BN, 75th RANGER Reg

Hostile fire – IED attack: November 16, 2007

Specialist Thomas F. Duncan III

2nd Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire: June 9, 2008

Staff Sergeant Anthony D. Davis

1st Battalion, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire – small arms fire: January 6, 2009

Corporal Ryan C. McGhee

3rd BN, 75th RANGER Regiment

Hostile fire: May 13, 2009


Glossary

AA-Antiaircraft.

AC-Aircraftcopilot.

Acid pad-Helicopter landing pad.

Aerial recon-Reconning a specific area by helicopter prior to the insertion of a recon patrol.

AFB-Airforcebase.

Airburst-Explosive device that detonates above ground.

Air Strike-Surface attack by fixed-wing fighter-bomber air-craft.

AIT-In the U.S. Army, Advanced Individual Training that follows Basic Training.

AK-A Soviet bloc assault rifle, 7.62 caliber, also known as the Kalashnikov AKA7.

AO-Area of operatjons, specified location established for planned military operations.

Ao dai-Traditional Vietnamese female dress, split up the sides and worn over pants.

ARA-Aerial rocket artillery.

Arc Light-A B-52 air strike.

Artillery or Arty Fan-An area of operations that can be covered by existing artillery support.

ARTO-Assistant radiotelephone operator.

Arty-Artillery.

ARVN-Army of the Republic of (South) Vietnam.

A Team-Special Forces operational detachment that normally consists of a single twelve-man team composed of ten enlisted men and two officers.

ATL-Assistant team leader

A Troop or Alpha Troop-Letter designation for one of the aero-rifle companies of an air cavalry squadron.

Baseball-shaped hand grenade with a five-meter kill range.

BDA-Bomb Damage Assessment.

Beat feet-To run from danger.

Beaucoup or boo koo-French for “many.”

Veehive-Artillery round filled with hundreds of small metal darts, designed to be used against massed infantry.

Berm Built-up earthen wall used for defensive purposes.

Big Pond-Pacific Ocean.

Bird Dog-A small fixed-wing observation plane.

Black box-Sensor device that detects body heat or move-ment. They were buried alorg routes used by the enemy to record their activity inthe area.

Black PJs-A type of local garb of Vietnamese farmers also worn extensively by Viet Cong guerrillas.

Blasting cap-A small device inserted into an explosive substance that can be triggered to cause the detonation of the main charge.

Blood trail-Spoor sign left by the passage or rernoval of enemy wounded or dead.

Blues-Another name for the aerorifle platoons or troops of an air cavalry squadron.

Body bag-A thick black plastic bag used to transport Ameri-can and allied dead to graves registration points.

Break contact-Disengaging from battle with an enemy unit.

Bring smoke-Placing intensive fire upon the enemy. Killing the enemy with a vengeance.

B Troop or Bravo troop -Letter designation for one of the aerorifle companies of an air cavalry squadron.

Bush-The jungle.

Buy the farm-To die.

C4-A very stable, pliable plastique explosive.

CA-Combat assault.

Cammies-Jungle-patterned clothing worn by U.S. troops in the field.

Cammo stick-Two colored camouflage applicator.

C & C-Command and Control.

CAR-15-Carbine version of the M-16 rifle.

Cav-Cavalry.

CCN-Command and Control (North), MAC-SOG.

Charlie, Charles, Chuck-GI slang for VC/NVA.

Cherry-New arrival in country ChiCom Chinese Communist

Chieu hoi-Government program that encouraged enemy sol-diers to come over to the South Vietnam side.

Chinook-CH-47 helicopter used for transporting equipment and troops.

Chopper-Slang for helicopter.

Chopper pad-Helicopter landing pad.

CIDG-Civilian Irregular Defense Group. South Vietnamese or Montagnard civilians trained and armed to defend themselves against enemy attack.

Clacker-Firing device used to manually detonate a claymore mine.

CO-Commanding officer.

Cobra AH-lG-Attack helicopter.

Cockadau-Slang for the Vietnamese word meaning kilL

Cold-An area of operations or a recon zone is cold if it is unoccupied by the enemy.

Commo-Communication by radio or field telephone.

Commo check-A radiotelephone operator requesting confirmation of his transmission.

Compromised-Discovered by the enemy.

Contact-Engaged by the enemy.

CP-Command post.

CS-Riot gas.

Daisy chain-Wiring a number of claymore mines together with det cord to achieve a simultaneous detonation.

Debrief-The gleaning of information and intelligence after a military operation.

DEROS-The date of return from an overseas tour of duty.

Det cord-Timed burn fuse used to detonate an explosive charge.

Diddy boppin’-Moving foolishly, without caution.

Di di-Vietnamese for to run or move quickly.

DMZ-Demilitarized zone.

Doc-A medic or doctor.

Double canopy-Jungle or forest with two layers of overhead vegetation.

Doughnut Dollies-Red Cross hostesses.

Drag-The last man on a long-range reconnaissance patroL

Dung lai-Vietnamese for “Don’t move”.

Dust-off-Medical evacuation by helicopter.

DZ-Drop zone for Airborne parachute operation.

E-1 or E-2-Military pay grades of private.

E-3-Military pay grade of private first class.

E-4-Military pay grade of specialist fourth class or corporal.

E-5-Military pay grade of specialist fifth class or sergeant.

E-6-Military pay grade of specialist sixth class or staff sergeant.

E-7-Military pay grade of sergeant first class or platoon sergeant.

E-8-Military pay grade of master sergeant or first sergeant.

E-9-Military pay grade of sergeant major.

E & E-Escape and evasion, on the run to evade pursuit and capture.

ER-Enlisted Reserve.

ETS-Estimated termination of service.

Exfil-Extraction from a mission or operation.

Extension leave-A thirty-day furlough given at the end of a full tour of duty after which the recipient must return for an extended tour of duty.

FAC-Forward air controller. Air force spotter plane that coordinated air strikes and artillery for ground units.

Fast mover-Jet fighter-bomber.

Finger-A secondary ridge running out from a primary ridge-line, hill, or mountain.

Firebase or fire support base-Forward artillery position usually located on a prominent terrain feature, used to support ground units during operations.

Firefight-A battle with an enemy force.

Firefly-An LOH observation helicopter fitted with a high-intensity searchlight.

Fire mission-A request for artillery support

Fix-The specific coordinates pertaining to a unit’s position or to a target.

Flare ship-Aircraft used to drop illumination flares in support of ground troops in contact at night

Flash panel-A fluorescent orange or yellow cloth used to mark a unit’s position for supporting or inbound aircraft.

FNG-Fucking New Guy. Slang term for a recent arrival in Vietnam.

FO-Forward observer. A specially trained soldier, usually an officer, attached to an infantry unit for the purpose of coordinating close artillery support.

“Foo gas” or fougasse-A jellied gasoline explosive that is buried in a fifty-five-gallon drum along defensive perime-ters and when command-detonated sends out a wall of highly flammable fuel similar to napalm.

Freak or freq-Slang term meaning a radio frequency.

G-2-Division or larger intelligence section.

G-3-Division or larger operations section.

Gook-Derogatory slang for VC/NVA.

Grazing fire-Keeping the trajectory of bullets between normal knee-to-waist height Grease-Slang term meaning to kill.

Green Beret-A member of the U.S. Army Special Forces.

Groundpounder-infantryman

Grunt-Infantryman.

Gunship-An armed attack helicopter.

H & I-Harassment and interdiction. Artillery fire upon certain areas of suspected enemy travel or rally points, designed to prevent uncontested use.

HE-High explosive.

Heavy team-In a long-range patrol unit, two five or six man teams operating together

Helipad-A hardened helicopter landing pad.

Ho Chi Minh trail-An extensive road and trail network running from North Vietnam, down through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam, which enabled the North Vietnamese to supply equipment and personnel to their units in South Vietnam.

Hootch-Slang for barracks or living quarters.

Horn-Radio or telephone handset.

Hot-A landing zone or drop zone under enemy fire. HQ Headquairrs.

Huey-The Bell UH helicopter series.

Hug-To close with the enemy in order to prevent his use of supporting fire.

Hump-Patrolling or moving during a combat operation.

I Corps-The northernmost of the four separate military zones in South Vietnam. The other divisions were II, III, and IV Corps.

Immersion foot-A skin condition of the feet caused by prolonged exposure to moisture that results in cracking, bleeding, and sloughing of skin.

Incoming-Receiving enemy indirect fire.

Indian country-Territory under enemy control.

Indigenous-Native peoples.

Infil-Insertion of a recon team or military unit into a rocon zone or area of operation.

Intel-Information on the enemy gathered by human, electronic, or other means.

Jungle penetrator-A metal cylinder lowered by cable from a helicopier used to extract personnel from inaccessible terrain

KCS Kit Carson Scout-Repatriated enemy soldiers working with U S combat units

Khmer-Cambodian.

Khmer Rouge-Cambodian Comrnunist.

Khmer Serei-Free Cambodian.

KIA-Killed in action.

Killer team-A small Lurp/Ranger team with the mission of seeking out and destroying the enemy.

LAW-Light antitank weapon.

LBJ-Long Benh jail. The incountry military stockade for U.S. Army personnel convicted of violations of the U.S. Code of Military Justice.

Lie dog-Slang meaning to go to cover and remain motionless while listening for the enemy. This is SOP for a recon team immediately after being inserted or infilled.

Lifer-Slang for career soldier.

LMG-Light machine gun.

LOH or Loach OH-6A-Light observation helicopter.

LP-Listening post. An outpost established beyond the pe-rimeter wire, manned by one or more personnel with the missibn of detecting approaching enemy forces before they can launch an assault.

LRP-Long-range patrol.

LRRP-Long-range reconnaissance patrol.

LSA-Government-issue lubricating oil for individual weapons.

LZ-Landing zone. A cleared area large enough to accomodate the landing of one or more helicopters.

M-14-The standard-issue 7.62mm semiautomatic/automatic rifle used by U.S. military personnel prior to the M-16.

M-16-The standard-issue 5.56mm semiautomatic/automatic rifle that became the mainstay of U.S. ground forces in l967.

M-60-A light 7.62mm machine gun that has been the pri-mary infantry automatic weapon of U.S. forces since the Korean War.

M-79-An individaally operated, single-shot, 40mm grenade launcher.

MAAG-Military Assistance Advisory Group. The senior U.S. military headquarters during the early American involve-ment in Vietnam.

MACV-Military Assistance Command Vietnam. The senior U.S. military headquarters after full American involvement in the war.

MACV-Recondo School A three-week school conducted at Nha Trang, South Vietnam, by cadre from the 5th Special Forces Group to train U.S. and allied reconnaissance personnel in the art of conducting long-range patrols.

MACV-SOG-Studies and Observations Group under com-mand of MACV that ran long range reconnaissance and other classified missions over the borders of South Vietnam into NVA sanctuaries in Laos and Cambodia

Maguire rig-A single rope with loops at the end that could be dropped from a helicopter to extract friendly personnel from inaccessible terrain.

Main force-Full-time Viet Cong military units, as opposed to local, part-time guerrilla units.

Marine Force Recon-U.S. Marine Corps divisional long-range reconnaissance units, similar in formation and function to U.S. Army LRP/Ranger companies.

MARS-Military/civilian radiotelephone system that enabled U.S. personnel in Vietnam to place calls to friends and family back in the United states.

Medevac or dust off-Medical evacuation by helicopter.

MG-Machine-gun.

MIA-Missing in action.

Mike Force-Special Forces mobile strike force used to reinforce or support other Special Forces units or camps under attack.

Montagnard-The tribal hill people of Vietnam.

MOS-Military occupation skill.

MP-Military police.

MPC-Military payneent certificates. Paper money issued to U.S. military personnel serving overseas in lieu of local or U.S. currency.

NCO-Noncommissioned officer.

NDP-Night defensive position.

Net-Radio network.

NG-National Guard.

Number One-The best or highest possible.

Number Ten-The worst or lowest possible.

Nungs-Vietnamese troops of Chinese extraction hired by U S Special Forces to serve as personal bodyguards and to man special strike units and recon teams. Arguably the finest indigenous forces in Vietnam.

Nuoc mam-Strong, evil-smelling fish sauce used to add flavor to the standard Vietnamese food staple-rice.

NVA-North Vietnamese Army.

ONH-Overnight halt.

OP-Observation post. An outpost established on a prominent terain feature for the purpose of visually observing enemy activity.

Op-Operation.

Op order-Operations order. A plan for a mission or operation to be conducted against enemy forces, covering all facets of such mission or operation.

Overflight-An aerial reconnaissance of an intended recon zone or area of operation prior to the mission or operation for the purpose of selecting access and egress points, routes of travel, likely enemy concentrations, water, and prominent terrain features.

P-38-Standard manual can opener that comes with government-issued C rations.

Pen flare-A small spring-loaded, cartridge-fed signal flare device that fired a variety of small colored flares used to signal one’s position.

Pink Team-An aviation combat patrol package composed of an LOH scout helicopter and a Charlie model Huey gunship or an Ah-1G Cobra. The LOH would fly low to draw enemy fire and mark its location for an immediate stnke from the gunship circling high overhead.

Pith helmet-A light tropical helmet worn by some NVA units.

Point-The point man or lead soldier in a patrol.

POW-Prisoner of war.

PRC-1O or Prick Ten-Standard-issue platoon/company radio used early in the Vietnam War.

PRC-25 or Prick Twentyfive-Standard-issue platoon/com-pany radio replaced the PRC-10.

PRC-74-Heavier, longer-range radio capable of voice or code communication.

Project Delta-Special Forces special-unit tasked to conduct long-range patrols in Southeast Asia.

Project Gama-Special Forces special unit tasked to con-duct long-range patrols in Southeast Asia.

Project Sigma-Special Forces special unit tasked to conduct long-range patrols in Southeast Asia.

PRU-Provincial Reconnaissance Units. Mercenary soldiers who performed special military tasks throughout South Vietnam. Known for their effective participation in the Phoenix Program, where they used prisoner snatches and assassinations to destroy the VC infrastructure.

Ps or piasters-South Vietnamese monetary system.

PSP-Perforated steel panels used to build airstrips, landing pads, bridge surfaces, and a number of other functions.

P-training Preparatory training-A one-week course required for each new U.S. Army soldier arriving in South Vietnam, designed to acclimatize new arrivals to weather conditions and give them a basic introduction to the enemy and his tac–tics.

Puff the Magic Dragon-AC-47 or AC-119 aircraft armed with computer-controlled miniguns that rendered massive support to fixed friendly camps and infantry units under enemy attack.

Punji stakes-Sharpened bamboo stakes, embedded in the ground at an angle designed to penetrate into the foot or leg of anyone walking into one. Often poisoned with human excrement to cause infection.

Purple Heart-A U.S. medal awarded for receiving a wound in combat.

PX-Post exchange.

Radio relay-A communications team located in a position to relay radio traffic between two points.

R & R-Rest and Recreation. A short furlough given U.S. forees while serving in a combat zone.

Rangers-Designation for U.S. long-range reconnaissance patrollers after January 31, l969.

Rappel-Descent from a stationary platform or a hovering heli-copter by sliding down a harness-secured rope.

Reaction force-Special-units designated to relieve a small unit in heavy contact.

Rear security-The last man on a long-range reconnaissance patrol

Redleg-Military slang for artillery.

REMF-Rear-echelon motherfucker. Military slang for rear-echelon personnel.

Rock ‘n’ roll-Slang for firing one’s weapon on full automatic.

Round eye-Slang for a non-Asian female.

RPD/RPK-Soviet bloc light machine gun.

RPG Soviet- Bloc front-loaded antitank rocket launcher used effectively against U.S. bunkers, armor, and infantry during the Vietnam War.

RT-Recon team.

RTO-Radio telephone operator.

Ruck-Rucksack or backpack.

Ruff-Puff or RF-South Vietnamese regional and popular forces recruited to provide security in hamlets, villages, and within districts throughout South Vietnam. A militia-type force that was usually ineffective.

Saddle up-To prepare to move out on patrol.

Same same-The same as.

Sapper-VC/NVA soldiers trained to penetrate enemy de-fense perimeters and to destroy fighting positions, fuel and ammo dumps, and command and communication centers with demolition charges, usually prior to a ground assault by infantry.

Satchel-charge Explosive charge usually carried in a canvas bag across the chest and activated by a pull cord. The weapon of the sapper.

SEALs-Small U.S. Navy special operations units trained in reconaissance, ambush, prisoner Snatch and counter-Guerrilla techniques.

Search and destroy-Offensive military operation designed to seek out and eradicate the enemy.

SERTS-Sereaming Eagle Replacement Training SchooL Rear-area indoctrination course that introduced newly arrived 101st Airbome Division replacements to the rigors of combat in Vietnam.

SF-U.S. Special Forces or Green Berets.

SFC-Sergeant First Class E-7.

Shake ‘a’ bake-A graduate of a stateside noncommissioned or commissioned officer’s course.

Short rounds-Artillery rounds that impact short of their target.

Short-timer-Anyone with less than thirty days left in his combat tour.

Single canopy-Jungle or forest with a single layer of trees.

Sit rep-Situation report. A radio or telephone transmission usually to a unit’s tactical operations center to provide infor-marion on that unit’s current status.

SIX-Designated call sign for a commander, such as Alpha six.

SKS-Communist bloc semiautomatic rifle.

Slack-Slang for the second man in a patrol formation. The point man’s backup.

Slick-Slang for a lightly armed Huey helicopter primarily used to transport troops.

Smoke-A canister-shaped grenade that dispenses smoke, used to conceal a unit from the enemy or to mark a unit’s location for aircraft. The smoke comes in a variety of colors.

Snake-Cobra helicopter gunship.

Snatch-To capture a prisoner.

Sneaky Pete-A member of an elite military unit who operates behind enemy lines.

Snoop and poop-A slang term meaning to gather inteffigence in enemy territory and get out again without being detected.

Socked in-Unable to be resupplied or extracted due to in-clement weather.

SOI-Signal operations instructions. The classified codebook that contains radio frequencies and call signs.

Sp4 or Spec Four-Specialist fourth class E-4.

Spectre-An AC-130 aircraft gunship armed with miniguns, Vulcans, and sometimes a 105mm howitzer, with the mission of providing close ground support for friendly ground troops

Spider hole-A camouflaged, one man fighting position fre-quently used by the VC/NVA.

Spooky-AC-47 or AC-119 aircraft armed with Gatling guns and capable of flying support over friendly positions for extended periods. Besides serving as an aerial weapons plat-form, Spooky was capable of dropping illumination flares.

Spotter round-An artillery smoke or white phosphorus round that was fired to mark a position.

S. SGT-Staff sergeant E-6.

Staging area-An area in the rear where final last-minute preparations for an impending operation or mission are conducted.

Stand down-A period of rest after completion of a mission or operation in the field.

Star cluster-An aerial signal device that produces three individual flares. Comes in red, green, or white.

Starlight scope-A night-vision device that utilizes any out-side light source for illumination.

Stars and Stripes-U.S. mllitary newspaper.

Stay behind-A technique involving a small unit dropping out or remaining behind when its larger parent unit moves out on an operation. A method of inserting a recon team.

Strobe light-A small device employing a highly visible, bright flashing light used to identify one’s position at night. Normally used only in emergency situations.

TA-Target area. Another designation for AO or area of operations.

TAC-air Tactical air support.

Tail gunner-Rear security or the last man in a patrol.

TAOR-Tactical area of responsibility. Another designation for a unit’s area of operations.

TDY-Temporary duty.

Ten forty-nine or 1049-Military Form 1049, used to request a transfer to another unit.

Thumper or thump gun-Slang terms for the M-79 grenade launcher.

Tiger Force-The battalion reconnaissance platoon of the 1/327, 101st Airborne Division.

Tigers or tiger fatigues-Camouflage pattern of black and green stripes usually worn by reconnaissance teams or elite units.

Time pencil-A delayed-fuse detonating device attached to an explosive charge or a claymore antipersonnel mine.

TL-Team leader.

TOC-Tactical operations center or command center.

Toe popper-Small pressure-detonated antipersonnel intended to maim, not kill.

Top-Slang term for a first sergeant, meaning top NCO.

Tracker-Soldiers specializing in trailing or traking the enemy.

Tri-border-The area in Indochina where Laos, Canhoda, and South Vietnam come together.

Triple canopy-Jungle or forest that has three distinct layers of trees.

Troop-Slang term for a soldier, or a unit in a cavalry squadron equal to an infantry company in size.

Tunnel rat-A small-statured U.S. soldier who is sent into underground enemy tunnel cornplexes armed only with a flashlight, knife, and pistol.

URC-1O-A pocket-size, short-range emergency radiocapable of transmitting only.

VC-Viet Cong. South Vietnamese Communist guerrillas.

Viet Minh-Short for Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh or league for the Independence of Vietnam. Organized by Communist sympathizers who fought against the Japanese and later the French.

VNSF-South Vietnamese Special Forces.

Warning order-The notification, prior to an op order, given to a recon team to begin preparation for a mission.

Waste-To kill the enemy by any means available.

White Mice-Derogatory slang for South Vietnamese Army MPs, originally referred only to Saigon police.

WIA-Wounded in action.

World-Slang term for the United States of America or home.

WP or Willy pete-White phosphorus grenade.

XF or Exfil-Extraction from the field, usually by helicopter

XO-Executive officer.

X-ray team-A communication team established at a site between a remote recon patrol and its TOC. Its function is to assist in relaying messages between the two stations.


The Beret

The Black Beret – a brief history:

The beret is European in origin – not American.  The word “beret” is defined in the New American Heritage Dictionary as “a round, visorless cloth cap, worn originally by male Basques.  [French béret, from Old Gascon barret, cap, from Late Latin birrus (of obscure version), hooded cape.] The word beret can be traced back to the early nineteenth century and this particular type of headgear has its roots in the northern mountainous regions of Spain and southern France, the Pyrennes, in a cap called boina. The boina {Basque for beret] is a small, round woolen cap with a flattened top, and still typifies Basque peasant dress. Incidentally, the Basque region also has its own network of guerrillas, the ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Basque Fatherland and Liberty) whose principal aim is to create an independent Basque state.  They are held responsible for the deaths of 800 people. The beret was introduced in Spain during the First Carlist War from 1833-39 and red identified the wearer as a Carlist (txapelgorri in Basque, that took the meaning of “Carlist soldier”) and Isabellines wore white berets. Today the Basque police force, the Ertzaintza, wears red berets.

Some of the early settlers on the American continent were of Scottish and Irish decent.  These men brought along bonnets as headgear.  Made of cloth and wide brimmed, these caps were usually blue, although some merchants sold them in various colors as well. Their origin stems as far back as the 17th century and there is evidence that bonnets were of several types – cut and sewn, knitted and woven.

One noted Ranger historian embroiled in the self-created black beret controversy and interested in preserving his era’s contribution to the beret history writes: “American Rangers did not wear Berets in colonial times. The French were the enemy.” The French, though a fashion conscious lot, probably had no impact on the headgear choices of colonial Rangers.  He further stipulates that although no headdress was standardized, Rangers who could acquire them, preferred to wear the Balmoral Bonnets – a bonnet with a round ball on top, the ball usually red.  This is of course absurd.  What woodsman would wear a brightly colored bonnet or beret?  But one thing Rangers would probably not be wearing would be colors that would alert the enemy.  Noted colonial Ranger scholar Gary S. Zaboly describes in his masterful book The Annotated and Illustrated Journals of Major Robert Rogersthat:  “I recall a battle reenactment between Rangers and French forces.  The Rangers came slinking down a tree-clad hill to surprise the enemy in the flank.  Even though the trees were in full foliage, I could still make out the red poms and the light-to-middle blue bonnets plunging down the slope, and then I realized that the Rangers of the 1750s, in the field at least, would never have worn bonnets this particular shade of blue, and especially not with red poms on them.” During the colonial period Zaboly concludes Rangers wore a multitude of different headgear – from animal skins, to jockey caps and bonnets in various colors and other felt hats usually cut down to brims about two inches wide.

In 1891 the French mountain troops, Les Chasseurs Alpins, adopted an extremely large version of the beret.  The color chosen or easily found at the local merchant or supplier was dark blue.  Some time earlier French Marines had worn a normal sized dark blue beret.

With the advent of industrialization and the wholesale slaughter of infantry during the Great War, soldiers returned to the early traditions of wearing steel helmets but “it also introduced berets into the main-stream of Western military uniforms.  Nearly all sources identify the tank as the causal agent.  Its cramped and obstructive confines compelled the British Royal Tank Corps, for one, to adopt a more functional headgear than their cumbersome and easily stained khaki cap.  Officially adopted in 1924, the new British black Beret was a compromise between the ‘skimpy’ beret of the Basque peasant and the ‘sloppy’ beret of the French Chasseurs Alpins.” European armies adopted the beret universally as well as permanently.

During the Second World War, the U.S. Army’s 1st Ranger Battalion, commonly known as Darby’s Rangers, formed in Northern Ireland in 1942 and began its long association with the world renowned British Commandos.  Completion of training at the Commando Depot afforded those Rangers the right to wear the British Commando Green Beret and the tartan of the Clan Cameron of Lochiel. The U.S. Army did not authorize it and Darby’s Rangers never donned their berets.  Instead, in an effort to Americanize these specialty troops, permitted each Ranger to wear the Ranger Scroll on his left shoulder, identifying him as a member of the:  “1stRANGER Bn.”

Another similar example would be that of the maroon beret.  In 1942, the British Paratroopers began wearing the beret.  “The maroon beret was first seen by German troops in North Africa, and within months they had christened the ferocious Paras ‘Rote Teufel’ – Red Devils.  This distinctive headdress, since adopted by parachute troops all over the world, was officially introduced at the direction of General Browning, and the Pegasus symbol – Bellerophon astride winged Pegasus – became the emblem of British Airborne Forces. In 1943, General Browning granted a battalion of the U.S. Army’s 509th Parachute Infantry Regiment honorary membership in the British Parachute Regiment and authorized them to wear British maroon berets.

In 1951 and again in 1976, the U.S. Marine Corps flirted with the idea of wearing berets, blue and green in color, but decided not to adopt them.  In 1951, the 10th Airborne Ranger Company put their men in black berets, but they were only locally authorized and only worn briefly until their deployment to Korea to join the 45 Infantry Division.

In the U.S. Army, Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) policy from 1973 through 1979 permitted local commanders to encourage morale-enhancing distinctions, and Armor and Armored Cavalry personnel wore black berets as distinctive headgear until Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) Bernard W. Rogers banned all such unofficial headgear in 1979.  Other units that had worn the black beret included: Company F (LRP), 52d Infantry, 1st Infantry Division, in 1967 in the Republic of Vietnam; Company H (Ranger), 75th Infantry, 1st Cavalry Division, in 1970 in the Republic of Vietnam; and Company N  (Ranger), 75th Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade, in 1971 in the Republic of Vietnam.  A brown or olive beret was worn in Alaska by the 172d Infantry Brigade as well as members of the brigades 1/60th Infantry who wore their brown berets with light blue flash insignias.   E Troop/17th CAV wore a tan colored beret from 1965-67.

Black berets again were authorized in the 1970s for U.S. Army personnel assigned to Ranger units and for all female soldiers. The newly minted Rangers of the 1st and 2nd Battalion, 75th Infantry (airborne) received authorization to wear their black berets officially via AR 670-5, Uniform and Insignia.  The date: 30 January 1975.  The Rangers switched to tan on June 14th, 2001.

Ranger Tan Beret Statement

Fellow Rangers,

The purpose in writing this note is to inform you that the 75th Ranger Regiment will exchange our traditional Black Beret for a Tan Beret. The Army’s donning of the Black Beret, as its standard headgear is a symbol of the “Army’s on-going Transformation” and a “symbol of excellence.” The 75th Ranger Regiment fully supports our Army’s initiative to don the Black Beret.

The Tan color of the new Ranger Beret reinvigorates the historical and spiritual linkage throughout the history of the American Ranger. It is the color of the buckskin uniforms and animal skin hats of Rogers’ Rangers, the first significant Ranger unit to fight on the American continent, and the genesis of the American Ranger lineage. Tan is the one universal and unifying color that transcends all Ranger Operations. It reflects the Butternut uniforms of Mosby’s Rangers during the American Civil War. It is reminiscent of the numerous beach assaults in the European Theater and the jungle fighting in the Pacific Theaters of World War II, where Rangers and Marauders spearheaded victory. It represents the khaki uniform worn by our Korean and Vietnam War era Rangers and the color of the sand of Grenada, Panama, Iraq, and Mogadishu, where modern day Rangers lead the way as they fought and, at times, valiantly died accomplishing the Ranger mission. Tan rekindles the legacy of Rangers from all eras and exemplifies the unique skills and special capabilities required of past, present, and future Rangers.

The Ranger Tan Beret will distinguish Rangers in the 21st Century as the Black Beret recognized them as a cut above in the past. With the donning of this new Beret, rest assured that the 75th Ranger Regiment will continue to Lead the Way with its high standards.

I made this decision because I feel it is best for the Ranger Regiment and our Army, today and in the future.

Following the announcement that on 14 June 2001 the Army would adopt the Black Beret as its standard headgear I asked the Regimental Command Sergeant Major to put together a uniform committee to examine some possible uniform options for the Regiment. These options included maintaining the current Black Beret, adding distinctive insignia to the Black Beret, and adopting a different color beret (ultimately six different colors were examined). The committee I established met three times over two months to consider input from Rangers of all ranks in the Regiment. The members of this group included the Honorary Colonel of the Regiment, DCO [Deputy Commanding Officer], RSM [Regimental Sergeant-Major], CSMs [Command Sergeant-Major] of each Battalion, and 1SGs of RHHC [Regimental Headquarters and Headquarters Company] and RTD [Ranger Training Detachment].

From the initial options, the committee narrowed consideration to maintaining the current Black Beret, augmenting the Black Beret with a WWII Ranger ‘diamond’ patch attached next to the flash, and an option of replacing the Black Beret with a Tan colored beret. The committee explored each option historically giving equal consideration to its appearance when donned with each of our uniforms. After receiving input from the units, the Tan Beret was selected.

Shortly after 1st Ranger Battalion was reactivated in 1974, the Army formally authorized the Black Beret for Rangers. By so doing, I do not believe it was saying the Rangers were different from the rest of the Army, but that they were distinctive within the Army, that more was expected of them, and that they would set the standards for the rest of the Army. They would be asked to “Lead the Way” as Rangers had done since WWII.

As today’s Rangers follow in the footsteps of those who preceded them, they continue to uphold the high standards of the Regiment as they prepare for tomorrow’s battles. Changing from the Black Beret to the Tan Beret is not about being different from the rest of the Army, but about a critical aspect that unifies our Army and makes it the best Army in the world — High Standards.

One of the Rangers most visible distinctive “physical features” is the beret. In the past, the beret distinguished the Rangers and acknowledged that they are expected to maintain higher standards, move further, faster, and fight harder than any other soldiers. I believe Rangers today and in the years to come deserve that same distinction.

Rangers have never been measured by what they have worn in peace or combat, but by commitment, dedication, physical and mental toughness, and willingness to Lead the Way — Anywhere, Anytime. The Beret has become one of our most visible symbols, it will remain so.

Unity within our Army is absolutely critical to combat readiness and Rangers have always prided themselves in being part of that unity. Unity among Rangers, past and present, is essential to moving forward and ensuring we honor those who have put the combat streamers on our colors and acknowledge the sacrifices and dedication of the Rangers and their families who serve our nation today.

I hope that when our Army dons the Black Beret and our Rangers put on the Tan Beret we will move forward and focus on what is ultimately the most important task in front of us — ensuring the continued high state of Readiness of the Ranger Regiment. We can do that by training hard and taking care of our Rangers and their families. The continued support of all Rangers to our Army is important to sustaining that Readiness.

Thanks to our Army, The 75th Ranger Regiment today is fully resourced and combat ready. Our focus in the future is maintaining that high state of readiness.

Again, thanks to each of you for everything you have done for our nation and our Rangers.

Rangers Lead the Way!

P.K. Keen

Colonel, Infantry

11th Colonel of the Regiment

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, 1976, pages 124-125.

http://www.army.mil/features/beret/beret.htm

http://www.carson.army.mil/pao/media_relations/data_card.htm

Kushner, pages 69-70.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beret

Gary Zaboly, American Colonial Ranger, Osprey Publishing:  Oxford, 2004, page 60.

http://www.appins.org/bonnet.htm

Documented History of Ranger Headdress by Robert Black

Illustrated, page 311.

Timothy J. Todish and Gary S. Zaboly, The Annotated and Illustrated Journals of Major Robert Rogers, Purple Mountain Press:  New York, 2002. Pages 292-322.

http://www.army.mil/features/beret/beret.htm

http://www.army.mil/features/beret/beret.htm

Carl Lehman, Darby Ranger interview/email.

http://www.army.mod.uk/para/history/northafrica.htm

http://www.army.mil/features/beret/beret.htm

Gung Ho Magazine,, October 1984, The Ranger Beret by Robert Black, pages 32-33

http://www.army.mil/features/beret/beret.htm

http://www.carson.army.mil/pao/media_relations/data_card.htm

Roy Boatman interview

http://www.army.mil/features/beret/beret.htm


The New Flash for the 75th Ranger Regiment (U.S. Army 18 May 2001)

Regimental Flash

A shield-shaped embroidered device with semi-circular base, 2 1/4 inches (5.72cm) in height and 1 7/8 inches (4.76cm) in width overall, edged with a 1/8 inch (.32cm) black border; an inner black border notched scarlet at the horizontal center line, four diagonal lines, upper scarlet, khaki, orange and lower white from upper right to lower left dividing the shield approximately in half. The upper left being green and the lower right being ultramarine blue.

1st Battalion

2d Battalion

3d Battalion

1st Battalion: A shield-shaped embroidered device with semi-circular base, 2 1/4 inches (5.72cm) in height and 1 7/8 inches (4.76cm) in width overall, edged with a 1/8 inch (.32cm) black border; an inner black border notched scarlet at the horizontal center line, four diagonal lines, upper scarlet, khaki, orange and lower white from upper right to lower left dividing the shield approximately in half. The upper left being green and the lower right being ultramarine blue.

2d Battalion: A shield-shaped embroidered device with semi-circular base, 2 1/4 inches (5.72cm) in height and 1 7/8 inches (4.76cm) in width overall, edged with a 1/8 inch (.32cm) black border; an inner black border double notched scarlet at the horizontal center line, four diagonal lines, upper scarlet, khaki, orange and lower white from upper right to lower left dividing the shield approximately in half. The upper left being green and the lower right being ultramarine blue.

3d Battalion: A shield-shaped embroidered device with semi-circular base, 2 1/4 inches (5.72cm) in height and 1 7/8 inches (4.76cm) in width overall, edged with a 1/8 inch (.32cm) black border; an inner black border triple notched scarlet at the horizontal center line, four diagonal lines, upper scarlet, khaki, orange and lower white from upper right to lower left dividing the shield approximately in half. The upper left being green and the lower right being ultramarine blue.


General History

THE 75TH RANGER REGIMENT

Companies A and B, 75th Infantry (Ranger) had remained on duty in the United States Army. In 1974, the 1st and 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, which gave the Army a stronger capability in Ranger operations, replaced them.

In 1984, the 3rd Battalion was also organized. All three battalions were then placed under the command of a new Ranger headquarters, the 75th Infantry (Ranger) Regiment. Ranger battalions conducted combat parachute assaults on Grenada (1983) and Panama (1989), as well as combat operations during Operation Eagle Claw, Desert Storm, Haiti and Somalia. The 75th Infantry (Ranger) Regiment was redesignated the 75th Ranger Regiment in 1986.

Today, the men of the 75th Ranger Regiment are tasked with the responsibility for missions similar to those that were undertaken by their forebears during the past three and a half centuries. Ranger weapons and means of transportation have changed considerably; however, the basic nature of their operations remains the same. If an experienced Ranger from one of Robert Rogers’ companies returned and joined a modern Ranger company, he would probably feel right at home after a few weapons classes. However, it might take a while before he would grow accustomed to parachute and helicopter assaults.

The outbreak of the 1973 Middle East War prompted the Department of the Army to be concerned about the need for a light mobile force that could be moved quickly to any trouble spot in the world. In the fall of 1973, General Creighton Abrams, Army Chief of Staff, formulated the idea of the reformation of the first battalion-sized Ranger units since World War II.

In January 1974, he sent a message to the field directing formation of a Ranger battalion. He selected its missions and picked the first officers. He felt a tough, disciplined and elite Ranger unit would set a standard for the rest of the United States Army and that, as Rangers graduated from Ranger units to Regular Army units, their influence would improve the entire Army. Following are some of General Abrams’ comments (which became known as “Abrams Charter”) on the Rangers which, in their early days, were often referred to as “Abe’s Own.”

The Ranger Battalion is to be an elite, light, and the most proficient infantry battalion in the world; a battalion that can do things with its hands and weapons better than anyone. The Battalion will contain no hoodlums or brigands and that if the battalion were formed of such, it should be disbanded.

The organization of the Battalion must be done right, there (is) no timetable for this effort, (that) it must be determined first what has to be done and with what equipment and facilities. Wherever the Ranger Battalion goes, it is apparent that it is the best.

On January 25, 1974, Headquarters, United States Army Forces Command, published General Orders 127, directing the activation of the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, with an effective date of January 31, 1974. In February, the worldwide selection was begun and personnel assembled at Fort Benning, Georgia, to undergo the cadre training from March through June 1974. On July 1, 1974, the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, parachuted into Fort Stewart, Georgia. The 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry soon followed with activation on October 1, 1974. These elite units eventually established headquarters at Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia, and Fort Lewis, Washington, respectively.

As a result of the demonstrated effectiveness of the Ranger battalions during URGENT FURY, the Department of the Army announced in 1984 that it was increasing the size of the active duty Ranger force to its highest level in forty years, by activating another Ranger battalion and a Ranger regimental headquarters. These new units, the 3rd Battalion, 75th Infantry (Ranger), and Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 75th Infantry (Ranger), received their colors on October 3, 1984, at Fort Benning, Georgia.

The activation ceremonies were a step into the future for the Ranger Regiment, and a link to the past, as they were held concurrently with the first reunion of the Korean War-era Rangers. Distinguished visitors and proud Rangers, both active duty and retired, joined to hail the historic activation of the Headquarters, 75th Infantry Regiment (Ranger).

On February 3, 1986, World War II Battalions and Korean War Lineage and Honors were consolidated and assigned by tradition to the 75th Infantry Regiment. This marked the first time that an organization of that size had been officially recognized as the parent headquarters of the Ranger Battalions.

Not since World War II and Colonel Darby’s Ranger Force Headquarters, had the U.S. Army had such a large Ranger force, with over 2,000 soldiers being assigned to Ranger units.

The entire Ranger Regiment participated in OPERATION JUST CAUSE, in which U.S. forces restored democracy to Panama. Rangers spearheaded the action by conducting two important operations. The 1st Battalion, reinforced by Company C, 3rd Battalion, and a Regimental command and control team, conducted an early morning parachute assault onto Omar Torrijos International Airport and Tocumen Military Airfield, to neutralize the Panamanian Defense Forces’ (PDF) 2nd Rifle Company, the entire Panamanian Air Force and secure the airfields for the arrival of the 82nd Airborne Division.

The 2nd and 3rd (-) Ranger Battalions, and a Regimental command and control team, conducted a parachute assault onto the airfield at Rio Hato, to neutralize PDF 6th and 7th Rifle Companies and seize General Manuel Noriega’s beach house. Following the successful completion of these assaults, Rangers conducted follow-on operations in support of Joint Task Force (JTF)-South. The Rangers captured 1,014 Enemy Prisoners of War (EPW), and over 18,000 arms of various types. The Rangers sustained 5 killed and 42 wounded.

Elements of Company B and 1st Platoon Company A, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment deployed to Saudi Arabia from February 12, 1991 to April 15, 1991, in support of OPERATION DESERT STORM. The Rangers conducted raids and provided a quick reaction force in cooperation with Allied forces; there were no Ranger casualties. The performance of these Rangers significantly contributed to the overall success of the operation, and upheld the proud traditions of the past.

From August 26, 1993, to 21 October, 1993, Company B, a Platoon from A Company and a command and control element of 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, deployed to Somalia to assist United Nations forces in bringing order to a desperately chaotic and starving nation.

 

RANGER UNITS

WORLD WAR II TO PRESENT

75th Infantry Regiment (5307th Composite Unit (Provisional)), U.S. Regular Army, 1943-1945

Ranger Infantry Battalions (6 Companies each), U.S. Regular Army, 1942-1945

 

1st Ranger Infantry Battalion (Darby), 1942-1944

2nd Ranger Infantry Battalion (Rudder), 1943-1945

3rd Ranger Infantry Battalion (Dammer), 1943-1944

4th Ranger Infantry Battalion (Murray), 1943-1944

5th Ranger Infantry Battalion (Schneider), 1943-1945

6th Ranger Infantry Battalion (Mucci), 1944-1945

29th Infantry Ranger Battalion (Provisional Battalion of Infantry Division), U.S. Regular Army, 1943

Ranger Squads (Provisional Units formed by Fifth Army and by some Divisions in Europe), U.S. Regular Army, 1944-1945

8213 ASU (8th Army Regular Company) (A Provisional Unit), U.S. Regular Army, 1950

Ranger Training Center (Airborne), Ranger Training Command, U.S. Regular Army, 1950-1951.

Ranger Infantry Companies (Airborne), (Independent Companies attached to Divisions), U.S. Regular Army, 1950-1951

1st Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (2nd IN Div), 1950-1951

2nd Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (7th IN Div), 1950-1951

3rd Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (3rd IN Div), 1950-1951

4th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (1st CAV Div), 1950-1951

5th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (25th IN Div), 1950-1951

6th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (1st IN Div), 1950-1951

7th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (Rgr Tng Cmd), 1950-1951

8th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (24th IN Div), 1950-1951

9th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (31st IN Div), 1951

10th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (45th IN Div), 1951

11th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (40th IN Div), 1951

12th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (28th IN Div), 1951

13th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (43rd IN Div), 1951

14th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (4th IN Div), 1951

15th Ranger Infantry Company (Abn) (47th IN Div), 1951

Ranger Infantry Company A (Abn) Ranger Training Command, 1951

Ranger Infantry Company B (Abn) Ranger Training Command, 1951

Ranger Department, U.S. Army Infantry School, U.S. Regular Army, 1952-Present

75th Infantry (Ranger) Regiment (Independent Companies attached to Divisions and Corps), U.S. Regular Army, 1969-1974

A Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (197th IN Bde and V Corps), 1969-1974

B Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (VII Corps), 1969-1974

C Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (I Field Force), 1969-1971

D Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (II Field Force), 1969-1971

E Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (9th IN Div), 1969-1970

F Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (25th IN Div), 1969-1971

G Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (23rd IN Div), 1969-1971

H Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (1st CAV Div), 1969

I Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (1st IN Div), 1969-1970

K Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (4th IN Div), 1969-1970

L Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (101st ABN Div), 1969-1971

M Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (199th IN Bde), 1969-1970

N Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (173rd ABN Bde), 1969-1971

O Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (US Army-Alaska), 1967-1969 (82nd ABN Div), 1969

P Co, 75th Infantry (Ranger) (5th IN Div), 1969-1971

D Co, 151st Infantry (Ranger), 1970

Airborne Ranger Companies (Army National Guard), 1981

D Co, 151st Infantry (Ranger), Indiana

E Co, 65th Infantry (Ranger), Puerto Rico

F Co, 425th Infantry (Ranger), Michigan

G Co, 143rd Infantry (Ranger), Texas

H Co, 175th Infantry (Ranger), Maryland

The Modern Rangers, 1974 – Present

75th Infantry (Ranger) Regiment (Headquarters Company and Three Battalions of Three Line Companies each), U.S. Regular Army. Provisionally designated on 1 July 1984. Formally designated 3 October 1984-2 February 1986.

75th Ranger Regiment, 3 February 1986 to present.

1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, 31 January 1974 – 2 February 1986.

1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, 3 February 1986 – Present.

2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, 1 October 1974 – 2 February 1986.

2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, 3 February 1986 – Present.

3rd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, 2 October 1984 – 2 February 1986.

3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, 3 February 1986 – Present.

 

Organization and Equipment Introduction of the Ranger Regiment

Figure A-1. Ranger regiment.

 

Figure A-2. Ranger regimental HHC.

 

Figure A-3. Ranger regimental staff.

 

Figure A-4. Ranger regimental headquarters company.

  

Figure A-5. Ranger regimental communications platoon.

  

Figure A-6. Ranger regimental reconnaissance platoon.

  

Figure A-7. The ranger battalion.

  

Figure A-8. Ranger battalion HHC.

  

Figure A-9. Ranger rifle company.

  

Figure A-10. Ranger rifle platoon.

  

Figure A-11. Ranger weapons platoon.

 

 

75TH RANGER REGIMENT

Shoulder Sleeve Insignia

Distinctive Unit Insignia

Coat of Arms

 

Shoulder Sleeve Insignia. Description: A black cloth triparted arced scroll with narrow red fimbriations and a 1/8 inch (.32cm) black border 1 29/32 inches (4.84cm) in height and 3 11/16 inches (9.37cm) in width overall inscribed “75 RANGER RGT” in white letters.

 

Background: The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally approved for the 75th Infantry on 26 Jul 1984. It was redesignated on 14 Feb 1986 for the 75th Ranger Regiment. The shoulder sleeve insignia for the 1st, 2d and 3d Ranger Battalions were approved on 26 Jul 1984.

Distinctive Unit Insignia. Description: A gold color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches (2.86 cm) in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned as follows: Quarterly Azure (blue) and Vert (green), between in the first and fourth quarters a radiant sun of twelve points and a mullet Argent, a lightning flash couped bendsinisterwise Gules fimbriated Or.

Symbolism: The colors blue, white, red and green represent four of the original six combat teams of the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional), commonly referred to as Merrill’s Marauders, which were identified by color. To avoid confusion, the other two colors, khaki and orange, were not represented in the design, however, khaki was represented by the color of the uniform worn by US forces in the China-Burma-India Theater during World War II. The unit’s close cooperation with the Chinese forces in the China-Burma-India Theater is represented by the sun symbol from the Chinese flag. The white star represents the Star of Burma, the country in which the Marauders campaigned during World War II. The lightning bolt is symbolic of the strike characteristics of the Marauders’ behind-the-line activities.

Background: The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved on 18 Mar 1969 for the 75th Infantry. It was redesignated for the 75th Ranger Regiment on 3 Feb 1986.

Coat of Arms.

Blazon:

Shield: Quarterly Azure and Vert, between in the first and fourth quarters a radiant sun of twelve points and a mullet Argent, a lightning flash couped bendsinisterwise Gules fimbriated Or.

Crest: On a wreath of the colors Argent and Azure, issuing in back of an embattlement of a tower with six merlons Or a pedestal Gules supporting a chinthé affronté of the third in front of a torteau within an annulet of the Second.

Motto: SUA SPONTE (Of Their Own Accord).

Symbolism:

Shield: The colors blue, white, red and green represent four of the original six combat teams of the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional), commonly referred to as Merrill’s Marauders, which were identified by color. To avoid confusion, the other two colors, khaki and orange were not represented in the design; however, khaki was represented by the color of the uniform worn by US forces in the China-Burma-India Theater during World War II. The unit’s close cooperation with the Chinese forces in the China-Burma-India Theater is represented by the sun symbol from the Chinese flag. The white star represents the Star of Burma, the country in which the Marauders campaigned during World War II. The lightning bolt is symbolic of the strike characteristics of the Marauders’ behind-the-line activities.

Crest: The organization’s service in the China-Burma-India Theater of World War II is represented by the chinthé (a gold Burmese lion). The blue annulet symbolizes the Presidential Unit Citation awarded for service at Myitkyina, Burma, the “gateway to China.” The gold embattlement in base refers to the unit’s combat service in Vietnam while the six merlons represent six Valorous Unit Awards; the two Meritorious Unit Commendations earned by elements of the regiment are denoted by the scarlet disc at center.

Background: The coat of arms was originally approved for the 75th Infantry Regiment on 27 Jul 1954. It was amended to add a crest on 23 May 1974. On 3 Feb 1986 the coat of arms was redesignated for the 75th Ranger Regiment.

 

75th Ranger Regiment Lineage and Honors  (U.S. Army 1 July 2003)

Organized 3 October 1943 in the Army of the United States in the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations as the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional)

Consolidated 10 August 1944 with the 475th Infantry (constituted 25 May 1944 in the Army of the United States) and consolidated unit designated as the 475th Infantry

Inactivated 1 July 1945 in China

Redesignated 21 June 1954 as the 75th Infantry

Allotted 26 October 1954 to the Regular Army

Activated 20 November 1954 on Okinawa

Inactivated 21 March 1956 on Okinawa

Reorganized 1 January 1969 as a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System

Reorganized 1 July 1984 with Headquarters at Fort Benning, Georgia

Consolidated 3 February 1986 with the former 1st Ranger Infantry Battalion, 2d Infantry Battalion, and 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th Ranger Infantry Battalions (see ANNEXES 1-6) and consolidated unit redesignated as the 75th Ranger Regiment; concurrently withdrawn from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System

ANNEX 1

Constituted 27 May 1942 in the Army of the United States as the 1st Ranger Battalion

Activated 19 June 1942 in Northern Ireland

Redesignated 1 August 1943 as the 1st Ranger Infantry Battalion

Disbanded 15 August 1944

Reconstituted 1 September 1948 in the Army of the United States as the 1st Infantry Battalion and activated in the Canal Zone

Inactivated 4 January 1950 in the Canal Zone

After 4 January 1950 organic elements underwent changes as follows:

Company A redesignated 25 October 1950 as the 1st Ranger Infantry Company and allotted to the Regular Army; activated 28 October 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 1 August 1951 in Korea

Company B redesignated 2 November 1950 as the 5th Ranger Infantry Company and allotted to the Regular Army; activated 20 November 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 1 August 1951 in Korea

Battalion redesignated 24 November 1952 as the 1st Ranger Infantry Battalion and allotted to the Regular Army (former organic elements concurrently redesignated)

Consolidated 15 April 1960 with the 1st Special Service Force (activated 9 July 1942), the 2d Infantry Battalion (see ANNEX 2), and the 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th Ranger Infantry Battalions (see ANNEXES 3, 4, 5, and 6) to form the 1st Special Forces, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System

Former 1st Ranger Infantry Battalion, 2d Infantry Battalion, and 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th Ranger Infantry Battalions withdrawn 3 February 1986, consolidated with the 75th Infantry, and consolidated unit redesignated as the 75th Ranger Regiment (remainder of the 1st Special Forces – hereafter separate lineage)

ANNEX 2

Constituted 11 March 1943 in the Army of the United States as the 2d Ranger Battalion

Activated 1 April 1943 at Camp Forrest, Tennessee

Redesignated 1 August 1943 as the 2d Ranger Infantry Battalion

Inactivated 23 October 1945 at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia

Redesignated 29 July 1949 as the 2d Infantry Battalion (Companies E and F concurrently disbanded)

Activated 15 September 1949 in the Canal Zone

Inactivated 4 January 1950 in the Canal Zone

After 4 January 1950 organic elements underwent changes as follows:

Company A redesignated 25 October 1950 as the 2d Ranger Infantry Company and allotted to the Regular Army; activated 28 October 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 1 August 1951 in Korea

Company B redesignated 2 November 1950 as the 6th Ranger Infantry Company and allotted to the Regular Army; activated 20 November 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 1 December 1951 in Germany

Company C redesignated 27 February 1951 as the 14th Ranger Infantry Company, allotted to the Regular Army, and activated at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 27 October 1951 at Camp Carson, Colorado

Company D redesignated 27 February 1951 as the 15th Ranger Infantry Company, allotted to the Regular Army, and activated at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 5 November 1951 at Fort Benning, Georgia

Company E reconstituted 15 December 1950 in the Regular Army as the 9th Ranger Infantry Company; activated 5 January 1951 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 5 November 1951 at Fort Benning, Georgia

Company F reconstituted 15 December 1950 in the Regular Army as the 10th Ranger Infantry Company; activated 5 January 1951 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 15 September 1951 in Japan

Battalion redesignated 24 November 1952 as the 2d Ranger Infantry Battalion and allotted to the Regular Army (former organic elements concurrently redesignated)

Redesignated 14 June 1955 as the 2d Infantry Battalion

Activated 1 July 1955 in Iceland

Inactivated 11 March 1960 at Fort Hamilton, New York

ANNEX 3

Constituted 21 July 1943 in the Army of the United States as the 3d Ranger Battalion; concurrently consolidated with the 3d Ranger Battalion (Provisional) (organized 21 May 1943 in North Africa) and consolidated unit designated as the 3d Ranger Battalion

Redesignated 1 August 1943 as the 3d Ranger Infantry Battalion

Disbanded 15 August 1944

After 15 August 1944 organic elements underwent changes as follows:

Company A reconstituted 25 October 1950 in the Regular Army as the 3d Ranger Infantry Company; activated 28 October 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 1 August 1951 in Korea

Company B reconstituted 2 November 1950 in the Regular Army as the 7th Ranger Infantry Company; activated 20 November 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 5 November 1951 at Fort Benning, Georgia

Company C reconstituted 15 December 1950 in the Regular Army as the 11th Ranger Infantry Company; activated 5 January 1951 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 21 September 1951 in Japan

Company D reconstituted 15 December 1950 in the Regular Army as the 12th Ranger Infantry Company; activated 1 February 1951 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 27 October 1951 at Camp Atterbury, Indiana

Company E reconstituted 15 December 1950 in the Regular Army as the 13th Ranger Infantry Company; activated 1 February 1951 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 15 October 1951 at Camp Pickett, Virginia

Battalion reconstituted 24 November 1952 in the Regular Army as the 3d Ranger Infantry Battalion (former organic elements concurrently redesignated)

ANNEX 4

Constituted 21 July 1943 in the Army of the United States as the 4th Ranger Battalion; concurrenly consolidated with the 4th Ranger Battalion (Provisional) (organized 29 May 1943 in North Africa) and consolidated unit designated as the 4th Ranger Battalion

Redesignated 1 August 1943 at the 4th Ranger Infantry Battalion

Disbanded 24 October 1944 at Camp Butner, North Carolina

After 24 October 1944 organic elements underwent changes as follows:

Company A reconstituted 25 October 1950 in the Regular Army as the 4th Ranger Infantry Company; activated 28 October 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 1 August 1951 in Korea

Company B reconstituted 2 November 1950 in the Regular Army as the 8th Ranger Infantry Company; activated 20 November 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia; inactivated 1 August 1951 in Korea

Battalion reconstituted 24 November 1952 in the Regular Army as the 4th Ranger Infantry Battalion (former organic elements concurrently redesignated)

ANNEX 5

Constituted 21 July 1943 in the Army of the United States as the 5th Ranger Battalion

Redesignated 1 August 1943 as the 5th Ranger Infantry Battalion

Activated 1 September 1943 at Camp Forrest, Tennessee

Inactivated 22 October 1945 at Camp Myles Standish, Massachusetts

ANNEX 6

Constituted 16 December 1940 in the Regular Army as the 98th Field Artillery Battalion

Activated 20 January 1941 at Fort Lewis, Washington

Converted and redesignated 26 September 1944 as the 6th Ranger Infantry Battalion

Inactivated 30 December 1945 in Japan

75th Ranger Regiment Honors

Campaign Participation Credit

World War II: Algeria-French Morocco (with arrowhead); Tunisia; Sicily (with arrowhead); Naples-Foggia (with arrowhead); Anzio (with arrowhead); Rome-Arno; Normandy (with arrowhead); Northern France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe; New Guinea; Leyte (with arrowhead); Luzon; India-Burma; Central Burma

Vietnam: Advisory; Defense; Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase II; Counteroffensive, Phase III; Tet Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase IV; Counteroffensive, Phase V; Counteroffensive, Phase VI; Tet 69/Counteroffensive; Summer-Fall 1969; Winter-Spring 1970; Sanctuary Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase VII; Consolidation I; Consolidation II; Cease-Fire

Armed Forces Expeditions: Grenada (with arrowhead); Panama (with arrowhead)

Decorations

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for EL GUETTAR

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for SALERNO

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for POINTE DU HOE

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for SAAR RIVER AREA

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for MYITKYINA

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for VIETNAM 1966-1968

Valorous Unit Award for VIETNAM – II CORPS AREA

Valorous Unit Award for BINH DUONG PROVINCE

Valorous Unit Award for III CORPS AREA 1969

Valorous Unit Award for FISH HOOK

Valorous Unit Award for III CORPS AREA 1971

Valorous Unit Award for THUA THIEN – QUANG TRI

Valorous Unit Award for GRENADA

Valorous Unit Award for MOGADISHU

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for VIETNAM 1968

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for VIETNAM 1969

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for VIETNAM 1969-1970

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for PACIFIC AREA

1st Battalion

75th Ranger Regiment Lineage

Organized 3 October 1943 in the Army of the United States in the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations as an element of the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional)

Consolidated 10 August 1944 with Company C, 475th Infantry (constituted 25 May 1944 in the Army of the United States), and consolidated unit designated as Company C, 475th Infantry

Inactivated 1 July 1945 in China

Redesignated 21 June 1954 as Company C, 75th Infantry

Allotted 26 October 1954 to the Regular Army

Activated 20 November 1954 on Okinawa

Inactivated 21 March 1956 on Okinawa

Activated 1 February 1969 in Vietnam

Inactivated 25 October 1971 in Vietnam

Redesignated 31 January 1974 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 75th Infantry, and activated at Fort Stewart, Georgia (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)

Headquarters and Headquarters Company consolidated 3 February 1986 with former Company A, 1st Ranger Infantry Battalion (see ANNEX); 1st Battalion, 75th Infantry, concurrently redesignated as the 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

ANNEX

Constituted 27 May 1942 in the Army of the United States as Company A, 1st Ranger Battalion

Activated 19 June 1942 in Northern Ireland

Redesignated 1 August 1943 as Company A, 1st Ranger Infantry Battalion

Disbanded 15 August 1944

Reconstituted 1 September 1948 in the Army of the United States as Company A, 1st Infantry Battalion, and activated in the Canal Zone

Inactivated 4 January 1950 in the Canal Zone

Redesignated 25 October 1950 as the 1st Ranger Infantry Company and allotted to the Regular Army

Activated 28 October 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia

Inactivated 1 August 1951 in Korea

Redesignated 24 November 1952 as Company A, 1st Ranger Infantry Battalion

Consolidated 15 April 1960 with the 1st Company, 1st Battalion, 1st Regiment, 1st Special Service Force (activated 9 July 1942), and consolidated unit redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 7th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces

Consolidated 6 June 1960 with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 77th Special Forces Group (activated 25 September 1953), and consolidated unit designated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 7th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces (organic elements constituted 20 May 1960 and activated 6 June 1960)

Former Company A, 1st Ranger Infantry Battalion, withdrawn 3 February 1986, consolidated with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 75th Infantry, and consolidated unit redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment (remainder of 7th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces – hereafter separate lineage)

1st Battalion

75th Ranger Regiment Honors

Campaign Participation Credit

World War II: *Algeria-French Morocco (with arrowhead); *Tunisia; *Sicily (with arrowhead); *Naples-Foggia (with arrowhead); *Anzio (with arrowhead); *Rome-Arno; Normandy (with arrowhead); Northern France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe; New Guinea; Leyte (with arrowhead); Luzon; *India-Burma; *Central Burma

Korean War: *CCF Intervention; *First UN Counteroffensive; *CCF Spring Offensive; *UN Summer-Fall Offensive

Vietnam: *Counteroffensive, Phase VI; *Tet 69/Counteroffensive; *Summer-Fall 1969; *Winter-Spring 1970; *Sanctuary Counteroffensive; *Counteroffensive, Phase VII; *Consolidation I

Armed Forces Expeditions: *Grenada (with arrowhead); *Panama (with arrowhead)

Decorations

*Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for EL GUETTAR

*Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for SALERNO

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for POINTE DU HOE

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for SAAR RIVER AREA

*Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for MYITKYINA

*Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for CHIPYONG-NI

*Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for HONGCHON

*Valorous Unit Award for VIETNAM – II CORPS AREA

*Valorous Unit Award for GRENADA

*Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1969-1970

*Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1970-1971

*Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class for VIETNAM 1969-1971

2d Battalion

75th Ranger Regiment Lineage

Organized 3 October 1943 in the Army of the United States in the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations as an element of the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional)

Consolidated 10 August 1944 with Company H, 475th Infantry (constituted 25 May 1944 in the Army of the United States), and consolidated unit designated as Company H, 475th Infantry

Inactivated 1 July 1945 in China

Redesignated 21 June 1954 as Company H, 75th Infantry

Allotted 26 October 1954 to the Regular Army

Activated 20 November 1954 on Okinawa

Inactivated 21 March 1956 on Okinawa

Activated 1 February 1969 in Vietnam

Inactivated 15 August 1972 in Vietnam

Redesignated 1 October 1974 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2d Battalion, 75th Infantry, and activated at Fort Lewis, Washington (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)

Headquarters and Headquarters Company consolidated 3 February 1986 with former Company A, 2d Infantry Battalion (see ANNEX); 2d Battalion, 75th Infantry, concurrently redesignated as the 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

ANNEX

Constituted 11 March 1943 in the Army of the United States as Company A, 2d Ranger Battalion

Activated 1 April 1943 at Camp Forrest, Tennessee

Redesignated 1 August 1943 as Company A, 2d Ranger Infantry Battalion

Inactivated 23 October 1945 at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia

Redesignated 29 July 1949 as Company A, 2d Infantry Battalion

Activated 15 September 1949 in the Canal Zone

Inactivated 4 January 1950 in the Canal Zone

Redesignated 25 October 1950 as the 2d Ranger Infantry Company and allotted to the Regular Army

Activated 28 October 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia

Inactivated 1 August 1951 in Korea

Redesignated 24 November 1952 as Company A, 2d Ranger Infantry Battalion

Redesignated 14 June 1955 as Company A, 2d Infantry Battalion

Activated 1 July 1955 in Iceland

Inactivated 11 March 1960 at Fort Hamilton, New York

Consolidated 15 April 1960 with the 4th Company, 2d Battalion, 1st Regiment, 1st Special Service Force (activated 9 July 1942), and consolidated unit redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 10th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces

Consolidated 30 September 1960 with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 10th Special Forces Group (activated 11 June 1952), and consolidated unit designated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 10th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated 20 March 1961)

Former Company A, 2d Infantry Battalion, withdrawn 3 February 1986, consolidated with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2d Battalion, 75th Infantry, and consolidated unit redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment (remainder of 10th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces – hereafter separate lineage)

2d Battalion

75th Ranger Regiment Honors

Campaign Participation Credit

World War II: Algeria-French Morocco (with arrowhead); Tunisia; Sicily (with arrowhead); Naples-Foggia (with arrowhead); Anzio (with arrowhead); Rome-Arno; *Normandy (with arrowhead); *Northern France; *Rhineland; *Ardennes-Alsace; *Central Europe; New Guinea; Leyte (with arrowhead); Luzon; *India-Burma; *Central Burma

Korean War: *CCF Intervention; *First UN Counteroffensive (with arrowhead); *CCF Spring Offensive; *UN Summer-Fall Offensive

Vietnam: *Counteroffensive, Phase VI; *Tet 69/Counteroffensive; *Summer-Fall 1969; *Winter-Spring 1970; *Sanctuary Counteroffensive; *Counteroffensive, Phase VII; *Consolidation I; *Consolidation II; *Cease-Fire

Armed Forces Expeditions: *Grenada (with arrowhead); *Panama (with arrowhead)

Decorations

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for EL GUETTAR

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for SALERNO

*Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for POINTE DU HOE

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for SAAR RIVER AREA

*Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for MYITKYINA

*Valorous Unit Award for III CORPS AREA 1969

*Valorous Unit Award for FISH HOOK

*Valorous Unit Award for III CORPS AREA 1971

*Valorous Unit Award for GRENADA

*French Croix de Guerre with Silver-Gilt Star, World War II for POINTE DU HOE

*Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1969

*Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1969-1970

*Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1970-1971

*Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1971-1972

*Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class for VIETNAM 1969-1970

3d Battalion

75th Ranger Regiment Lineage

Organized 3 October 1943 in the Army of the United States in the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations as an element of the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional)

Consolidated 10 August 1944 with Company F, 475th Infantry (constituted 25 May 1944 in the Army of the United States), and consolidated unit designated as Company F, 475th Infantry

Inactivated 1 July 1945 in China

Redesignated 21 June 1954 as Company F, 75th Infantry

Allotted 26 October 1954 to the Regular Army

Activated 20 November 1954 on Okinawa

Inactivated 21 March 1956 on Okinawa

Activated 1 February 1969 in Vietnam

Inactivated 15 March 1971 in Vietnam

Redesignated 2 October 1984 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 75th Infantry, and activated at Fort Benning, Georgia (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)

Headquarters and Headquarters Company consolidated 3 February 1986 with former Company A, 3d Ranger Infantry Battalion (see ANNEX); 3d Battalion, 75th Infantry, concurrently redesignated as the 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

ANNEX

Constituted 21 July 1943 in the Army of the United States as Company A, 3d Ranger Battalion; concurrently consolidated with Company A, 3d Ranger Battalion (Provisional) (organized 21 May 1943 in North Africa), and consolidated unit designated as Company A, 3d Ranger Battalion

Redesignated 1 August 1943 as Company A, 3d Ranger Infantry Battalion

Disbanded 15 August 1944

Reconstituted 25 October 1950 in the Regular Army as the 3d Ranger Infantry Company

Activated 28 October at Fort Benning, Georgia

Inactivated 1 August 1951 in Korea

Redesignated 24 November 1952 as Company A, 3d Ranger Infantry Battalion

Consolidated 15 April 1960 with the 1st Company, 1st Battalion, 2d Regiment, 1st Special Service Force (activated 9 July 1942), and consolidated unit redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 13th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces

Withdrawn 14 December 1960 from the Regular Army and allotted to the Army Reserve (organic elements concurrently constituted)

Group activated 1 March 1961 with Headquarters at Jacksonville, Florida

Headquarters and Headquarters Company inactivated 15 April 1963 at Jacksonville, Florida (organic elements inactivated 21 January 1966)

Former Company A, 3d Ranger Infantry Battalion, withdrawn 3 February 1986, consolidated with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 75th Infantry, and consolidated unit redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment (remainder of 13th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces – hereafter separate lineage)

3d Battalion

75th Ranger Regiment Honors

Campaign Participation Credit

World War II: Algeria-French Morocco (with arrowhead); Tunisia; *Sicily (with arrowhead); *Naples-Foggia (with arrowhead); *Anzio (with arrowhead); *Rome-Arno; Normandy (with arrowhead); Northern France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe; New Guinea; Leyte (with arrowhead); Luzon; *India-Burma; *Central Burma

Korean War: *First UN Counteroffensive; *CCF Spring Offensive; *UN Summer-Fall Offensive

Vietnam: *Counteroffensive, Phase VI; *Tet 69/Counteroffensive; *Summer-Fall 1969; *Winter-Spring 1970; *Sanctuary Counteroffensive; *Counteroffensive, Phase VII

Armed Forces Expeditions: *Panama (with arrowhead)

Decorations

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for EL GUETTAR

*Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for SALERNO

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for POINTE DU HOE

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for SAAR RIVER AREA

*Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for MYITKYINA

*Valorous Unit Award for BINH DUONG PROVINCE

*Valorous Unit Award for MOGADISHU

*Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation for UIJONGBU CORRIDOR

*Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation for KOREA 1951

*Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1969

*Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1969-1970

*Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class for VIETNAM 1969-1970


Grenada

The modern Ranger battalions were first called upon in 1980. Elements of 1st Battalion, 75th Infantry (Ranger) participated in the Iranian hostage rescue attempts. The groundwork for our Special Operations capability of today was laid during training and preparation for this operation. Rangers and other Special Operation Forces from throughout the Department of Defense developed tactics, techniques, and equipment from scratch, as no doctrine existed anywhere in the world.

The farsightedness of General Abrams’ decision, as well as the combat effectiveness of the Ranger battalions, was again proven during the United States’ invasion of Grenada on October 25, 1983. The mission of the Rangers was to protect the lives of American citizens and restore democracy to the island. During the operation, code-named URGENT FURY, the 1st and 2nd (-) Ranger Battalions conducted a daring low-level parachute assault (500 feet), seized the airfield at Point Salinas, rescued American citizens at the True Blue Medical Campus, and conducted air assault operations to eliminate pockets of resistance.

IN THEIR OWN WORDS:

“Grenada, day one or two,”

“It was such a blur that I don’t remember. We got the mission to air assault onto the beach at Grande Anse to rescue about 200 Americans holed up in one building. Paul Andreasen and I (both Sergeants then) climbed aboard a USMC CH-46 just before the mission. SFC Magana was my PSG and Goss was my Platoon Leader. The bird held about 15 of us, the whole platoon, as I recall (only about 250 from 2nd battalion went) As the rotors spooled up the two .50 cal Marine door gunners were blessing themselves, and checking their guns; obviously terrified. I was scared shitless myself, about to go into a hot LZ in broad daylight, but found strength in the fact that at least I was not the MOST scared. One Marine turned to us and asked (his eyes showing that he REALLY wanted a good answer) “Have you guys ever done this?!” to which Paul replied, beautifully, Oh yeah, we do this all the time! (and he’s got this shit eating grin, and we just start laughing out loud; and I’m thinking, what a great line… and this Marine is now convinced that we are maniacs, and blesses himself again…)

“The bird takes off, and heads out to sea, along with what seems like dozens of others, both ’46’s and CH-53’s. I sat next to one of those punch-out escape windows. The actual window had been removed even before takeoff because we KNEW we may have to use them, making a nice way to get out. Looking out the windowless opening, I could see nothing but helicopters coming in low over the ocean, making a bee-line for the Grande Anse beach. It was a view right out of “Apocalypse Now”. We started taking ground fire, and the birds broke off the attack and did a racetrack. Cobras continued in with guns firing.

“Heading in again, as our bird approached the beach (not close to where the rest of the birds were landing), things started to go wrong. Strange sounds. Were the rounds hitting the bird? Don’t know. The ’46 started shuddering violently. Pilot put it down in the surf, so close to the Palm trees (no beach, just some rocks), that the blades were trashing the trees. The rear ramp opened a crack and then stopped, as water started filling the floor of the bird. All the Marines on that bird were the first to go. They left us in there like a target. I’m thinking, “this is not good”, and with my 100 pound ruck, tried to go out that escape window. The 2 LAWs under the top flap of my ruck held me up. Magana shouts “DROP RUCKS”, then manages to get the ramp to drop. We struggle to get out into the water, about 4 feet deep. My ruck, one strap off, and one caught on my M-16 sling tangles and I go right underwater as if I’ve got an anchor around my neck. Slipped out of the ruck, and made it to the shore. By this time there is close air or some other shooting. Hell, I was so disoriented at this point, it was hard to say where the fire was coming from, but seemed directed at the trees along the beach. Believe now it was a Navy fast mover with nose cannon firing up the treeline. Things then got quiet, we get up and run up the beach a couple hundred meters to where the rest of 2nd Bat is landing.

“I am prone, securing the corridor between the building where the hostages are and the PZ (which is a strip of beach so narrow that the birds have their wheels in the water to avoid having the blades hit the palm trees). At this point, I think it was AC-130 that was putting steel around us. I saw Goss jumping on one foot, barking out instruction and pointing. I was an alternate on the aid and litter team, yelled over to SP4 Morales to help me, then grabbed Goss by the waist with both arms to carry him to the nearby “precious cargo” bird to be evacuated, rotors where whipping, forcing us to yell to be heard. He pushed me away, yelling: “GET BACK TO THE LINE!” I did.

“Within minutes, birds were doing the touch and go as Americans were hustled aboard and whisked off. As the perimeter collapsed and we boarded another bird to leave, I sat on the seat across from Goss, and went for his bloody foot. Again, He pushed me (and Andreasen, who was also right there, along with SFC Magana) back. Pain was on his face, but he would not let any of us touch him. The bird lifted, and during that short ride back to Pt. Salinas Airstrip, I watched the puddle of blood under Goss’ foot get bigger and bigger. Paul and I met eyes, and without words, agreed that we would grab him when he finally fell over from loss of blood.

“Goss collapsed just as we touched down. We drug him off the bird, and started ripping his gear off. My knife was razor sharp and gashed his foot as it went through the boot. Gamma goat from the 82nd pulled up and medics joined in. Someone started an IV. At this point, people were working on him that knew more than Paul and I, so we just backed off.

“For a few seconds there, standing on that huge expanse of tarmac, sounds of rotor blades fading, the enemy several clicks away, I felt suddenly exhausted. The adrenaline was gone, for now, and I was gulping air. Paul and I started walking to a spot of ground, south of the airstrip, that C Co had claimed as their own. The Americans that we had rescued were nearby, guarded now in a perimeter of 82nd troops. As Paul and I approached, they all stood up, recognizing Rangers as their rescuers (and not the 82nd), and started cheering. There is nothing I can put into words to describe my feelings upon seeing those Americans cheer us after that rescue.

“Paul raised his fist, shaking it, and shouted “WE DO EMBASSIES TOO!!” at this point we were laughing hysterically, more than anything, I think, out of relief to still be alive. (As our bird was going down, only 30 minutes earlier, I thought we were dead men). I have tried to compare those intense, complicated emotions to other situations before or since in my 37 years… There are none. I was never more proud to be a Ranger.”

Kurt Sturr

C Co, 2d Bn, 75th Inf.(Ranger)


Somalia

From August 26, 1993, to 21 October, 1993, Company B, a Platoon from A Company and a command and control element of 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, deployed to Somalia to assist United Nations forces in bringing order to a desperately chaotic and starving nation. Their mission was to capture key leaders in order to end clan fighting in and around the city of Mogadishu. On October 3, 1993, the Rangers conducted a daring daylight raid with 1st SFOD in which several special operations helicopters were shot down. For nearly 18 hours, the Rangers delivered devastating firepower, killing an estimated 600 Somalis in what many have called the fiercest ground combat since Vietnam. Six Rangers paid the supreme sacrifice in accomplishing their mission. Their courage and selfless service epitomized the values espoused in the Ranger Creed, and are indicative of the Ranger spirit of yesterday, today, and tomorrow.

Somalia Background

“It is like a porcupine, bristling with quite exceptional difficulties.”

J.F.C. Fuller, 1935

Somalia was formed in 1960 by the union of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland.

At civil war since 1977, Somalia has approximately 14 major factions participating in internecine warfare. The majority of Somalis are Sunni Moslems.

In 1991 the Somali government collapsed after decades of civil war where killings and beheadings became common occurrences. The already weakened infrastructure coupled with a drought led to the death of hundreds of thousands of Somalis by starvation.

Food relief missions, initiated by private organizations, were seized by various clans who in turn used these assets to procure additional weapons and pay their followers.

The intrinsic violent nature of the Somali clans hampered further relief efforts to such a point that the United Nations approved Resolution 751 in April 1992, to provide humanitarian aid to Somalia (UNOSOM I). Unable to properly accomplish the mission due to the lack of proper resources, the United States initiated Operation Provide Relief. Although temporarily successful and welcomed by many Somalis, additional security measures were needed and a few months later Operation Restore Hope sought to provide military as well as humanitarian support.

In March 1993, Operation Restore Hope was turned over to UN Peacekeeping Forces and UNOSOM II was created, making it the first ever UN directed peacekeeping mission. The mandate called for three distinct phases; disarming Somali clans, rebuild the political infrastructure and create a more secure environment. Twenty-one nations contributed personnel to UNOSOM II. Turkish General Bir and retired Admiral Jonathan Howe, acting as special representative to the UN Secretary-General, were in command. US General Montgomery led a US Quick Reaction Force (QRF).

Effects of UNOSOM II:

UN nation-building in Somali threatened certain clans, most notably the Somali National Alliance (SNA) under the leadership of Mohammed Aidid, the former chief of staff.

Headquartered in Mogadishu, Aidid; trained in guerrilla war, quickly initiated a campaign of resistance to the UN which ultimately led to a series of ambushes killing 24 Pakistani Peacekeepers. These soldiers were physically torn apart and dismembered by the doped-up clansmen.

The UN was forced to demonstrate its willingness to protect its peacekeepers and the next day the UN and the White House, under the leadership of UN Secretary-General Boutros ­Ghali and Madeline Albright, passed Resolution 837, authorizing action against those responsible: namely Aidid.

Strained relations between the Clinton Administration and the military (gay-rights, general distrust toward Armed Forces) led to the exclusion of any input from the Pentagon regarding Resolution 837.

The humanitarian mission changed to a military one. Gunships arrived, and with the additional firepower numerous Aidid assets were destroyed or seized.

Personalities:

Boutros-Ghali had been a long time enemy of Aidid’s and unable to quickly resolve the escalating military situation in Mogadishu, Howe placed a $25,000 bounty on Aidid. The battles became personal.

More Somalis began to see the UN, under the leadership of the US, as a threat, not as a neutral party. The SNA withdrew a little, and the gunships were sent back in order to open negotiations with Aidid. However, smaller engagements continued. Several UN contingents, most notably the Italians, had non-aggression pacts with the SNA.

Bir and Howe became frustrated enough to request proper troops for the manhunt SFOD-Delta and US Army Rangers.

Task Force Ranger (TFR)

TFR was placed under the command of General William Garrison. Although numerous raids took place, Aidid was not caught. Additional fire power in the form of mechanized vehicles and armor was denied by the Secretary of Defense Les Aspin after an American helicopter was shot down. Frustrated and under pressure from the White House, which had secretly opened negotiations with Aidid, TFR undertook an unnecessary and daring day-light raid, resulting in the battles of October 3-4, 1993. 18 American servicemen died. Somali casualties range from 350-700 killed and thousands wounded. The White House withdrew US troops shortly thereafter.

October 3-4, 1993 timeline

2:49 PM Two principle targets, Habr Gidr clan leaders, spotted at a residence in central Mogadishu.

3:32 PM The force launches: nineteen aircraft, twelve vehicles and 160 men.

3:42 PM The Assault begins. the boys hit the target house and four Ranger chalks rope in — one Ranger, Private Todd Blackburn, misses the rope and falls 70 ft. to the street.

3:47 PM Large crowds of Somalis converging on the target area.

3:58 PM One of the vehicles, a five-ton truck, is hit and disabled by a rocket propelled grenade, several men are wounded.

4:00 PM Forces of armed Somalis converging on the target area from all over Mogadishu.

4:02 PM Assault force reports both clan leaders and about 21 others in custody, as the force prepares to pull out, three vehicles are detached to rush the wounded Private Blackburn back to the base.

4:15 PM Fighting and confusion delays loading the prisoners and pulling out. 4:20 PM Black Hawk Super 61 is hit by a rocket propelled grenade and crashes five blocks northeast of the target.

4:22 PM Crowds of Somalis racing toward the crash site.

4:26 PM Prisoners loaded, the convoy and ground forces all begin moving toward the downed chopper. Black Hawk Super Six Four, piloted by Michael Durant, takes the downed chopper’s place in orbit over the fight.

4:28 PM Search and rescue team ropes in to assist the downed crew. Both pilot and copilot are dead.

4:35 PM Convoy makes a wrong turn and begins wandering lost through city streets, sustaining heavy casualties.

4:40 PM Durant’s Black Hawk, Super Six Four, is hit and crashes about a mile southwest of the target. Hostile crowds begin moving toward it.

4:42 PM Two snipers, Sergeants Randy Shughart and Gary Gordon, are inserted by helicopter to help protect the injured Durant and his crew.

4:54 PM The Lost Convoy, with more than half of its force wounded or dead, abandons its search for the first downed Black Hawk and begins fighting its way back to the base.

5:03 PM A smaller, emergency convoy is dispatched in an attempt to rescue the men stranded at Durant’s crash site. It encounters immediate obstacles.

5:34 PM Both convoys, battered and bleeding, link up and abandon the effort to break through to Durant. The remainder of the ground force of Rangers and commandos are converging around the first crash site, sustaining many casualties. Ranger Corporal Jamie Smith is among those shot.

5:40 PM Somali crowds overrun Durant’s crash site, killing Shughart, Gordon, and every member of the crew except Durant, who is carried off by militia through the city.

5:45 PM Both convoys return to the base. Ninety-nine men remain trapped and surrounded in the city around the first downed Black Hawk, fighting for their lives. Corporal Smith bleeding heavily, medic requests immediate evacuation.

7:08 PM Black Hawk Super Six makes a daring re-supply run, dropping water, ammo and medical supplies to the trapped force. It is badly damaged, cannot land to evacuate Corporal Smith, limps back to base.

8:27 PM Corporal Smith dies.

10:00 PM Giant convoy, two companies of 10th Mt. Division troops along with the remainder of Task Force Ranger, Pakistani tanks and Malaysian armored vehicles, forms at Mogadishu’s New Port, and begins planning the rescue. 11:23 PM The giant rescue convoy moves out, blazing into the city.

1:55 AM Rescue convoy reaches the trapped Ranger force. A second half of the convoy reaches the site of Durant’s downed Black Hawk. There is no trace of the crew.

3:00 AM Forces still struggling to remove the pinned body of Cliff Wolcott, pilot of Super Six One.

5:30 AM Wolcott’s body is finally recovered. Vehicles roll out of the city. Ranger force is left to run out of the city through gunfire-“The Mogadishu Mile.”

6:30 AM The force returns to the Pakistani Stadium. Eighteen dead, 73 injured.

Alternate time-line from DeLong and Tuckey – Mogadishu October 3, 1993

1:00 PM Joint Operations Command Center briefing where intelligence was bared indicating top Farid Aidid lieutenants were ready for the picking.

2:15 PM Task Force Ranger places section of Mogadishu offlimits; first indication to various U.S. units throughout city that operation might occur.

3:30 PM Lead pilot gets “Irene” code word; mission begins.

3:37 PM Task Force Ranger headquarters issues REDCON ONE alert keeping men on 30-minute “string.”

3:50 PM Ground convoy arrives in position waiting for signal to load prisoners. 4:00 PM Insertion complete with assault forces and blockers on the outside doing their job; enemy fire starting to increase.

4:10 PM First notification of Cliff Wolcott’s downed helicopter.

4:20 PM Michael Durant’s helicopter is shot down about a mile to the south of first crash site.

4:30 PM Ground convoy attempts to reach Wolcott crash site but runs into fierce Somali resistance. 10th Mountain Quick Reaction Force summoned to airport.

4:35 PM Snipers Shughart and Gordon dropped off at Durant crash site to help fend off armed crowds.

5:00 PM Ground convoy decides to forsake rescue mission after taking too many injuries and returns to airfield.

5:15 PM Hastily assembled Ranger rescue team takes off for Wolcott crash site and encounters furious resistance.

5:24 PM QRF arrives at airport for intense rescue planning.

6:18 PM Ground convoy arrives at airfield.

6:30 PM QRF force takes off in combat column for rescue effort at Durant crash site.

7:00 PM QRF column is forced to turn back after encountering fierce Somali firepower.

7:20 PM Ranger company at Wolcott crash site establishes defense perimeter to wait for rescue force.

8:30 PM Planning just about complete at airport for multinational rescue force that includes QRF soldiers aided by Malaysian and Pakistani armored vehicles and personnel.

10:40 PM Relief column including about 300 soldiers from three nations ready to pull out.

11:30 PM Relief column pulls out.

Midnight Two APCs with rescue troops heading for northern (Wolcott) crash site turn south instead and end up stranded after being hit by Somali RPG attack.

1:50 AM QRF relief column arrives at Wolcott crash site.

3:00 AM Stranded rescuers picked up by Malaysian APCs from troops at southern (Durant) crash site.

5:20 AM QRF and Rangers extract bodies from Wolcott crash site and prepare to move back to the airport.

5:45 AM Convoy arrives back at sports stadium.

Conclusions

1) The Clinton Administration, unhappy with inheriting the Somalia problem and distrusting the military, failed to properly analyze the internal political situation.

2) Personal dislikes toward Aidid by Howe and Boutros-Ghali only alienated the parties further.

3) The Clinton Administration’s failure in policy and subsequent failure in supporting its own policies (denial of additional resources) further failed when they opened secret negotiations with Aidid without informing TFR.

4) The intelligence and military apperatis’ dependence on high technology in a zero-tech environment clearly demonstrated a command failure. Human intelligence gathering was non-existent and not properly supported throughout. Some analysts believe that Aidid set-up TFR with faulty intelligence. There is no direct evidence supporting that statement. It has been asserted that intelligence collaboration with other UN forces would have been appropriate. Given the “neutrality” stance of certain countries this would have led to a disaster (see below).

5) Certain UN contingents had understandings with the SNA. The Italians have been accused of alerting the clans whenever US troops (TFR) departed for missions.

6) TFR failed on an operational level in that no contingencies were made for multiple helicopter crashes and/or proper incorporation of the QRF (10th Mountain).

7) The battle in Mogadishu on October 3-4, 1993 represent one of the greatest feats of American combat arms.

8) The so-called failure in Somalia led to the Clinton Administration’s refusal to intervene in the Rwandan civil war which killed at least 500,000 inhabitants.

The military withdrawal from Somalia enraged many servicemen and demonstrated a lack of foreign policy leadership.

Major Participants

(From Mogadishu! Heroism and Tragedy by Kent DeLong and Steven Tuckey, Praeger, 1994 *not complete)

Jones, Chief Warrant Officer Randy -Task Force Ranger Pilot of his “little bird” attack helicopter Barber 51.

Matthews, Lieutenant Colonel Tom -Air Mission Commander from the 160th Special Aviation Regiment.

Garrison, Major General William -Task Force Ranger commander.

Aidid, General Mohammed Farid -Somalian warlord and target of the United Nations manhunt, in general, and October 3 mission in specific.

Cugno, Major Ron -STAR wing assault commander flying MH-6 “little bird” helicopter.

Wade, CW3 Hal -Co-pilot and wing leader for Jones in “little bird” attack helicopter.

Kulsrud, Chief Warrant Officer Larry -Pilot of “Little Bird” attack helicopter Barber 52.

Wolcott, Cliff -75th Ranger and Blackhawk Super 61 pilot shot down on October 3 after inserting Delta Force troops at target site.

Goffena, Michael -75th Ranger and Blackhawk Super 62 pilot and part of the insertion team.

Perino, Lieutenant Larry -3rd Ranger Battalion, B Company platoon and mission chalk position leader.

Steele, Captain Mike -3rd Ranger Battalion and B Company commander.

Durant, Michael -160th Regiment Blackhawk helicopter Super 64 pilot shot down and held captive by Somalis for 10 days.

DiTomasso, Lieutenant Tom -3rd Ranger Battalion B Company platoon and mis-sion chalk position leader.

Cleveland, Sergeant Bill -Durant’s Super 64 crew chief.

Fields, Sergeant Tommie -Durant’s Super 64 crew chief.

Eversman, NCO Sergeant Matthew -Ranger platoon leader inserted at target building.

Elliott, Sergeant Charles -Ranger at target building.

Heard, Private First Class Brian -Ranger at target building who was ordered to shoot armed, threatening Somalis.

Briley, Donovan -Wolcott’s co-pilot who died in the downing of his Super 61 Blackhawk.

Jollota, Dan -160th Regiment and pilot of the Combat Search and Rescue helicopter who first was at Wolcott’s crash site.

Lamb, Sergeant First Class Al -CSAR insertion team lead in Jollota’s chopper.

Belda, Sergeant Mark -Weapons team member in CSAR chopper.

Maier, Chief Warrant Officer Karl -Pilot of STAR 41 “little bird” MH-6 gunship that aided Wolcott rescue effort.

Jones, Chief Warrant Officer Keith -Maier’s co-pilot who aided in Wolcott rescue effort.

Ward, Hal -Crew member of the “little bird” gunship.

Belman, Sergeant John -CSAR soldier in Jollota’s craft.

Stebbins, Specialist John -CSAR soldier in Jollota’s chopper sent to aid rescue efforts at downed Wolcott helicopter site.

McKnight, Lieutenant Colonel Danny -3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger regiment-leader of the truck convoy that was to remove captives from the target building, but was diverted to failed rescue attempt at Wolcott crash site.

Powell, Sergeant Bill -75th Ranger Regiment in charge of McKnight ground convoy fire support team.

Carlson, Private First Class Tory -Part of McKnight ground convoy.

Cavaco, Corporal James -Mark 19 gunner in McKnight ground convoy shot and killed.

Pringle, Sergeant Michael -Ground convoy machine gunner.

Galleher, Sergeant Bob -Ground convoy driver.

Joyce, Corporal James J. -Killed in McKnight ground convoy rescue attempt.

Weaver, Sergeant Aaron -Ground convoy driver.

Williamson, Sergeant Aaron -Ranger in a blocking position at the target house who was shot when he was on a mission to rescue other soldiers in danger at the Wolcott crash site.

Smith, Corporal James -Ranger fatally shot trying to aid at Wolcott crash site.

Blackburn, Sergeant Todd -Chalk Four Ranger who was injured in original insertion.

Ruiz, Sergeant Lorenzo -Killed in the ground convoy.

Kowaleski, Private First Class Richard -Ranger killed in the ground convoy.

Warner, Sergeant Mark -Ranger trying to assist the ground convoy.

Fillmore, Sergeant First Class Earl -Ranger killed in attempt to reach Wolcott crash site.

Boorn, Sergeant Kenneth -Ranger shot in first attempt to reach Wolcott crash site.

Rodriguez, Specialist Carlos -Ranger shot in first attempt to reach Wolcott crash site.

Goodale, Sergeant Mike -Ranger fire control officer taking part in first attempt to reach Wolcott crashsite.

Frank, Ray -Slain co-pilot in Durant’s doomed Super 64 Blackhawk.

Hall, Sergeant Mason -Door gunner in Goffena Super 62 Blackhawk.

Field, Tommie -Slain crew chief in Durant’s doomed Super 64 Blackhawk.

Gordon, Master Sergeant Gary -Delta Force sniper killed in attempt to rescue Durant. Later awarded Medal of Honor.

Shughart, Sergeant First Class Randy -Delta Force sniper killed in attempt to rescue Durant. Later awarded Medal of Honor.

Shannon, Crew Chief Paul -Crew chief in Goffena’s Blackhawk Super 62.

Yacone, Captain Jim -Goffena’s co-pilot.

Halling, Bradley -Sniper in Goffena’s Super 62 Blackhawk.

David, Lieutenant Colonel William -Commander of 10th Mountain Quick Reaction Force.

Flaherty, Lieutenant Michael -QRF medic.

Casper, Colonel Lawrence -10th Mountain Aviation Brigade commander.

Harold, Lieutenant Colonel Bill -Delta Force commander.

Gile, Brigadier General Greg -10th Mountain Division commander.

Whetstone, Captain Mike -10th Mountain QRF Charlie Company commander.

Montgomery, Major General -10th Mountain commander who led the multinational effort to rescue trapped Rangers at the two helicopter crash sites.

Carroll, Sergeant -Wounded QRF soldier rescued by Sergeant Doody in first ill-fated rescue attempt.

Pamer, Private First Class Eugene -QRF soldier shot in first ill-fated rescue attempt; Silver Star recipient.

Knight, Sergeant Richard -QRF soldier in first ill-fated rescue attempt.

Durant, Lorrie -Wife of Michael Durant who kept home fires burning waiting for his return from captivity.

Gore, Lieutenant Colonel Robert Lee -Commander of 10th Mountain “Raven” attack helicopter company.

Neely, Jim -Pilot in “Raven” company.

Nixon, Major Craig -Liaison from Task Force Ranger to QRF.

Aspin, Les -Secretary of Defense until January of 1994.

Powell, General Colin -Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff through 1993.

Doody, First Sergeant Gary -Charlie Company soldier who received numerous awards for valor under fire.

Hollis, Lieutenant Mark -QRF Alpha Company platoon leader stranded in a wrong-way convoy.

Meyerowich, Captain Drew -QRF Alpha Company commander sent to Wolcott crash site rescue effort.

Moores, Lieutenant Larry -Ranger who helped lead a hastily assembled convoy to rescue survivors at Wolcott crash site.

Warner, Sergeant Mark -Ranger who helped lead a hastily assembled convoy to rescue survivors at Wolcott crash site.

Mita, First Sergeant David -l0th Mountain Alpha Company NCO sent to rescue Rangers at Wolcott crash site.

Martin, Private First Class James -l0th Mountain soldier who died on way to Wolcott crash site rescue.

Howard, Lieutenant Colonel Bill -Special Forces officer who accompanied QRF rescue effort to Wolcott crash site.

Liles, Sergeant First Class John -Senior medic for 160th Aviation Regiment.

Adams, Dr. Bruce -l60th Regiment surgeon key to hospital operations after the mission.

Borton, Tommie -Adams’s medic assistant.

March, Dr. Bruce -Special Forces surgeon who helped set up casualty collection point near the airport’s tarmac.

Uhorachak, Major John -Army orthopedic surgeon helping to staff field hospital that day.

Martin, Master Sergeant Tim “Grizz” -Special Forces soldier killed in action.

Simpson, Staff Sergeant Michael -Forward Area Rearming and Refueling Point chief armament technician.

Harrison, Chuck -Pilot.

Seipel, Specialist John -QRF soldier shot but not seriously injured when Crash Site One rescue convoy pulled out Monday morning.

DeJesus, Specialist Melvin -Ranger who was stranded at Wolcott crash site.

Houston, Sergeant Cornell -QRF soldier who was killed in action.


Doctrinal Statement

The 75th Ranger Regiment is a light infantry unit composed of highly trained and motivated Airborne Ranger qualified soldiers. Every effort will be made to ensure that the Ranger Regiment is the best military unit in the world. The Regiment will have the highest priority for all types of Army support to ensure that it is under no burden, which would detract from its outstanding image.

EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS

The 75th Ranger Regiment can be rapidly deployed to any location in the world where United States military presence is required. The unit can infiltrate by air, land, and sea, and is capable of independent operations for short periods (normally 5 days maximum).

The Regiment has an austere table of organization and equipment (TO&E) to give it unique maneuverability and adaptability. All essential equipment must be manportable to facilitate rapid deployment and to provide an operational capability on any terrain or climatic condition. Augmentation and tailoring of Ranger units with non-TO&E personnel and equipment should be considered a normal practice for each mission. When required, the Regiment must also have the capability for limited duration conventional infantry operations. It should not be misunderstood; the ideal use for the Ranger Regiment is in the conduct of swift, daring missions, which are of a time-sensitive and strategic nature.

The Regiment has priority for issue of new equipment. Portable weapons, light weight clothing and equipment, improved rations, the latest communications equipment, and STANO devices are supplied to Ranger units as soon as such items are ready for use.

The unit training of the Ranger Regiment takes advantage of select characteristics of the unit and ensures maximum individual cross training in all organic weaponry and communications equipment to provide the highest degree of proficiency.

In the accomplishment of their mission, Ranger units are trained to conduct small unit landing force/amphibious operations, and are capable of communicating with, and effectively directing the tactical employment of U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force close air support.

TRAINING

A key factor that makes the Ranger Regiment capable of conducting special military operations is training. The Ranger Regiment trains twelve months of the year. Ranger battalions have no post support requirements; no police or guard details; and no personnel on Special Duty. Training is continuous except for two two-week periods of block leave each year. During these breaks, every Ranger is given the opportunity to take leave. Block leave serves as a safety valve to relieve the pressure of the demanding pace of training, and also assures the commander that he will have a full complement of personnel for training.

The result of having maximum personnel available for training and few external distractions is numerous off-post exercises. The Regiment conducts arctic, jungle, desert, and mountain training periodically. Amphibious training is also conducted. The individual Ranger is exposed to and challenged by every imaginable type of terrain and climatic condition. Elements, his peers, and evaluators test him. Emergency Deployment Readiness Exercises (EDREs) and Joint Readiness Training Exercises (JRX’s) complete the wide array of Ranger training.

All Ranger training is conducted as performance-oriented training. Realism in training and a sense of accomplishment are the commander’s stated goals. Training is not conducted that does not improve either individual or collective skills. The Regiment focuses on the basics of: physical conditioning, marksmanship, small unit drills and medical training. Multi-echelon training is the technique used to tie the basics together with leader training. No single ingredient plays a more important role in honing and developing battlefield skills than stress conditioning. Army Research Institute (ARI) studies found that: Soldiers who have not been trained under stressful conditions do not react well when confronted with antagonistic situations. They tend to compromise critical or sensitive situations. The phenomenon of training under stress is that each successive antagonistic or stress situation is more easily overcome than the preceding situation. Highly motivated soldiers training under exacting and stressful conditions have proven that they reach relatively higher levels of performance and retain these skills longer than those not exposed to similar conditions.

Complementing the stress conditioning developed during daily training is the stress created by the battalions’ intensified readiness posture during the periods of Ranger Ready Force (RRF). The three Ranger Battalions alternate periods of responsibility for RRF1 with each other throughout the year. One of the three battalions is poised to respond to emergencies at all times.

While a battalion is on RRF, all of its troops and its equipment can be assembled, loaded, and ready for deployment within 18-hours, one company (+) is capable of deploying in nine hours. Each time a no-notice alert is initiated, every Ranger knows that what may appear to be a readiness training exercise, may actually be a response to a combat situation or build-up to a deployable maintenance level. The state of mind that exists in the Ranger battalion is that we are ready NOW.

There is no secret formula for the 75th Ranger Regiment. It is very simply a matter of the following:

Individual soldiers are four-time volunteers (volunteer for the Army, for Airborne School, for the Ranger Regiment, and Ranger School). The Regimental Training Detachment assesses and selects soldiers coming to the 75th Ranger Regiment to assume their mission as Rangers. The program was initiated in 1978 at the 1st Ranger Battalion based on a need to continuously receive, integrate, and train new personnel for the battalion, regardless of where the battalion might be. The program accomplishes three tasks: Administratively inprocess newly assigned junior enlisted personnel to the regiment. Prepare them physically and mentally for a smooth integration into their respective Ranger battalion. Familiarize newly assigned leaders with the battalion mission, standards, and staff functions; and prepare them for their leadership position. Prepare Rangers mentally, physically, and academically for attendance to U.S. Army Ranger School.

Officer experience is the highest available. All platoon leaders are first lieutenants and have previously served as platoon leaders. All company commanders have had prior successful commands, as have the battalion commanders. Key staff officers have also had prior experience in their respective positions. No officer serves in the Regiment to learn a job. Rather, he brings successful experience in that position to the Regiment.

NCO experience is unmatched. As a group, they are the most experienced in the Army. They are the continuity that carries on the traditions and lessons learned. They ensure there are no train-up periods needed to maintain the standards.

The maximum number of soldiers is available for training because of the block leave concept.

Training is conducted in all environments (arctic, jungle, desert, mountain and amphibious).

Excellent training in special operations skills.

Multiple Emergency Deployment Readiness Exercises (EDREs) each year.

Multiple Joint Readiness Training Exercises (JRXs) each year.

The capability of the commander to summarily eliminate from the Regiment any soldiers who fail to meet Ranger standards.

Simply put, highly motivated and experienced soldiers are given all the necessary time and resources with which to train toward clear-cut objectives and goals.

OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS

The 75th Ranger Regiment is a flexible, highly trained, and rapidly deployable light infantry force with specialized skills that enable it to be employed against a variety of targets. A classified concept contains information related to Ranger Force participation and requirements in a classified Joint Chiefs of Staff concept plan. The United States Army continues to have a requirement to provide the National Command Authorities (NCA) and warfighting CINCs a ground force with the unique capability to conduct joint special operations throughout the operational continuum in support of U.S. national policies and strategic objectives. The Ranger Force fills this role. It infiltrates by land, sea, or air into complex joint environments and conducts missions under conditions of restrictive rules of engagement, at night, in politically sensitive environments, causing minimal collateral damage, and specializes in operations on urban terrain. To ensure success, the Force is manned with highly trained and experienced leaders, and individuals are specially selected, and are the most mentally alert, physically capable soldiers in the Army. The rapid proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) technology/materials and likely acquisition of WMD by rogue states and non-state actors, coupled with increased technical sophistication, will exponentially increase the risks associated with mission failure, while at the same time expose the Ranger Force to greater vulnerability.

The Ranger Force is normally employed as part of a Joint Special Operations Task Force (JSOTF). The Ranger Force provides a worldwide, strategically responsive strike force with a highly lethal ground combat capability. It can serve as a Flexible Deterrent Option to demonstrate U.S. national resolve by immediately committing military power on land into a threatened area. It can also conduct offensive, Direct Action (DA) operations against targets of strategic or operational value to achieve theater campaign or major operational objectives. Ranger offensive operations include seizing airfields and other key facilities, performing raids, conducting air movement operations using special operations aviation, and evacuating non-combatants. These operations are characterized by speed, surprise and violent execution.

Ranger DA operations are short duration strikes or other small scale offensive actions to seize, destroy, or capture enemy forces, or to recover designated personnel or equipment in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive areas. These operations are conducted independently, or in support of a campaign plan. They may be conducted in coordination with conventional forces, but differ from conventional operations in degree of risk, operational techniques, and modes of employment. They rely on undetected insertion and rapid movement to the target if the force is inserted offset from the objective, and surprise and shock if the insertion is on the target.

The strategic responsiveness of the Ranger Force provides the NCA a credible combat capability for protecting selected vital U.S. interests and citizens without having to wait for international support or guarantees of non-intervention. The Ranger Force is frequently the principal element of ground combat power when the United States conducts a forcible entry operation.

Rangers are highly trained in urban combat and operate primarily at night, maximizing the advantages of state of the art technology for night vision and target acquisition. They operate under very restrictive rules of engagement, under the watchful eyes of the international media, and minimize collateral damage and noncombatant casualties. They can employ light, medium, and/or heavy mortars. They employ an unmatched sniper capability to increase force protection and minimize collateral damage with precision fires during limited visibility. They are capable of special reconnaissance.

CONCLUSION

Although it may be the most physically and mentally demanding assignment in the United States Army, Rangers believe in their Regiment. They are aware that in this volatile world, Rangers, above all others must be ready to go anywhere at any time. All a Ranger asks is that his mission is tough, and above all, that he is allowed to do what he is trained to do.

RANGERS LEAD THE WAY!


Iraq

Operation Desert Storm

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Elements of Company B and 1st Platoon Company A, 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment deployed to Saudi Arabia from February 12, 1991 to April 15, 1991, in support of OPERATION DESERT STORM. The Rangers conducted raids and provided a quick reaction force in cooperation with Allied forces; there were no Ranger casualties. The performance of these Rangers significantly contributed to the overall success of the operation, and upheld the proud traditions of the past.

Operation Iraqi Freedom

The 75th Ranger Regiment is conducting classified missions during Operation Iraqi Freedom including airfield seizures and raids.  Rangers participated in the successful raid to free a US Army POW.  The first successful POW mission in the last 50 years.

The Battle of Hadithah Dam

Written from the perspective of a platoon sergeant, Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment.

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On the evening of March 31, 2003, Co. B, 3rd Ranger Battalion seized Objective Lynx, Hadithah Dam, on the Euphrates River in west-central Iraq in order to ensure that the dam was not prepared for destruction by enemy forces and to provide a line of communication across the river for follow on forces.

My account of this operation will begin Saturday, March 29, two nights prior at an airstrip in western Iraq that had been seized three days earlier by Co. A, 3rd Ranger Battalion. My platoon infiltrated into Iraq with the mission to disrupt enemy activity at key locations.  The company planned a 48-72 hour load for the upcoming mission and planned on operating in and out of the airfield. We established an assembly area within Co. A’s perimeter and began priorities of work until the next cover of darkness. Just before sunset on March 30, Co. B departed to link up with a platoon from Co. C, 3rd Ranger Battalion and continued movement to a ROD site, or Rest Over Day, site.

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We arrived just as the sun came up in our ROD site. We quickly established security and camouflaged our vehicles. This is when I found out we had just received a FRAGO, a short order to change our mission. Intelligence reported the Iraqi military had begun an IO, or information operations, campaign stating the U.S. may bomb Hadithah Dam. The concern was if the Iraqi military were to blow the dam it would flood southern Iraq and cause a huge humanitarian catastrophe and major problems for 3rd ID pushing north to Baghdad.

Co. B received the mission to seize Objective Lynx and ensure the dam wasn’t rigged to be blown. The enemy situation stated the dam was heavily guarded with 100-200 enemy personnel, numerous armored vehicles including T-55 Battle tanks and in excess of 50 anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) pieces. Within four hours, the commander established a plan, issued his orders and conducted rehearsals. First platoon’s mission would be to secure the western flank to allow 2nd platoon to clear the inside of the dam and allow our breachers to confirm the dam was not at risk. As the sun began to set on March 31, we departed our ROD sight for a 31 kilometer infiltration to Objective Lynx.

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About 2 km out from the objective, one of our ground mobility vehicles (GMV’s) broke all four bolts on the steering box, disabling it. The mechanic, with the assistance of four of my men, removed one bolt from three other vehicles, removed the threaded portions left inside the frame on the broken vehicle and replaced three of the four bolts in 22 minutes.

The company moved in and, surprisingly, began the assault with no resistance. I was tasked to lead one of my squads with a M-240 machine gun team up a small hill and clear a building on the left-hand side of the road. This was about the time the entire company realized we had already driven up about one-third of the way of the dam. 3rd Platoon, Co. C was turning their vehicles around to find an alternate route to the main power facility at the base of the dam. My 1st Squad detained two guards immediately after arriving in position. I began to move my 3rd Squad with control of the M-240 to the crest of the small hill to begin clearance of the building. As soon as I got into position, the complexity of this mission became apparent.

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We looked around and could see the entire dam structure. Until this point we didn’t appreciate how large it actually was. The top of the hill, where our platoon’s objective was, did not have the single structure we had planned for. It had 12 large concrete buildings. I immediately requested a second squad from the platoon leader to assist in clearing the objective. I ordered the 3rd squad leader to begin clearing the first building and establish a foothold on what was the key terrain on the dam. The gun team leader set his machine gun in to isolate the remainder of the hilltop. Third squad began clearing the building; it was empty with all doors locked. We had most of this building cleared when 3rd Platoon, Co.C made contact down in front of the main dam structure at the power relay station. It was a short engagement — some small arms and a couple .50-caliber bursts.

 
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Once the building was secure, I moved the M-240 team to the roof to cover our movement. I began alternating the two squads between buildings across the objective. Everything was still pretty quiet at this point. Once we cleared to the far side of the hill to allow heavy guns to secure the southern flank, I called for all the vehicles to move up. It was about this time when my second squad moved across a 25-meter open area to a huge concrete mural of Saddam Hussein when everything got crazy.

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All at once the lip of the hill opened up with small arms, machine gun and rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) fire. I believe the Iraqis had moved out of the buildings to survivability positions at the base of the hill when they heard the coalition aircraft and were moving back up the hill when they began firing. Further out, more than 10 different mortar tubes began engaging the hill almost simultaneously. Amazingly, no one had been injured.

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The platoon immediately returned fire and began what turned out to be a four-hour battle to push the enemy forces back at least 1,200m out of RPG range. The platoon leader and radio-telephone operator (RTO) began using aerial platforms to engage the mortar positions that now had our position zeroed in on. I quickly got all of our vehicles up in positions where the heavy gunners were barely over the crest of the down slope in front of us and began engaging the close-in mortars with the MK-19 40 millimeter grenade launcher and .50-caliber machine guns.

About 30 minutes into the firefight, my 1st Squad leader came up to me and pointed out an island he thought had a mortar tube firing on our location. As we both looked, the tube fired. I could not believe it. Due to the range of the island I secured an anti-tank gunner with a Javelin missile and he used it to engage the position that was dug into the island with rocks piled up in the front. We received no additional fire from the island. About 45 minutes later, we serviced the island with two 1000lbs bombs just to ensure destruction.

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As this fight continued into the morning light, it continued to show more and more problems. The vast, open desert in front of us was nothing but interconnected trench lines and bunkers for as far as the eye could see.  Approximately one hour after daylight, one of our battle positions reported a GMV heading south away from the dam. We called and got a report that it was Tactical Operations Center (TOC) 2’s vehicle moving to link up with 3rd Platoon, Co. C. They had missed their turn, pushed down the road and had turned back to find it. On their way back they had stopped in front of two buildings that were in front of us. We began to refer to these building as CAS 1 and 2.

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The Iraqi forces continued to maneuver to and from these buildings. We had more than 20 bombs dropped on both buildings by the end of the first three days. Immediately after the bombing stopped, one of the personnel had gotten out of the vehicle, turned around and began running back to the vehicle and directly behind them from our location they were engulfed in small arms fire. They sped back to our location. The problem was that the road headed directly back towards us, so we were unable to return fire to help them get out of there without possibly hitting them. As soon as the road turned right, three of my positions opened fire on the ambush site.

My medics quickly moved to where the vehicle was coming up, expecting the worst. When the vehicle made it to our location it had been hit pretty bad and was crippled. The engine was barely running and the transmission was severely leaking fluid. One Ranger, who had gotten out of the back seat, was hit four times in his back plate uninjured. The driver had taken a round through the vehicle and hit his right foot. The two remaining Rangers in the vehicle were unscathed. As the medics began treating the driver, we moved the vehicle up into a firing position before it was deadlined.

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As the day continued, the enemy forces would consolidate in groups of 50 to100 approximately 6-8km from our location. We used 120mm mortars to prevent their consolidation. They would then disperse and come at us in human waves of 10-15 personnel. This continued throughout the next few days.  During the evening we began to fortify our positions as we tracked their movements with our thermal imagers.  The first attempt the Iraqis made to move into our location that night was – I am sure – quite a shock to them. As they approached with weapons slung over their shoulders as if they were just going to walk right up on us, we engaged them about 600 to 800m out.  After this, they never tried to walk right up to us again — they maneuvered. These human waves continued for the next two days, with at least one of our positions in contact every 30 minutes. These attempts made establishing a sleep plan very difficult.

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Meanwhile, 2nd Platoon, Co. B had finished clearing the dam complex by mid-afternoon of Day One.  They had two attempts to assault their battle point (BP) by vehicles. By the end of the first day the company had captured nine enemy prisoners of war and detained 25 civilian dam workers. During one of the attempts by the Iraqi forces on the eastern side of the dam, an Iraqi soldier was shot and rolled down one level of the earthen portion of the dam. Second platoon was under intense fire from an Iraqi 23mm machine gun in the low ground to the front. The 2nd Platoon sergeant and regimental command sergeant major maneuvered down the front of the dam under direct fire to assist the wounded Iraqi soldier. Unfortunately, this Iraqi soldier passed away a few hours later. Another wounded Iraqi had lost his lower jaw due to a .50 caliber bullet and our medics were able to save his life.

During the evening and throughout Day Two, the Iraqi forces continued attempts to retake the dam.  Around mid-afternoon, one of my positions reported a kayak heading towards us. The gunner gave the kayak a warning shot. The Iraqi continued to head for a small island to the north west of the dam.  The kayak departed after about three to four hours and headed for the shore.  Believing this was obviously an attempt to gather intelligence, the platoon leader and I decided to have the kayak engaged. With one burst from the .50 caliber, my gunner sank the kayak and the Iraqi began to swim in to the shore. I dispatched a fire team to secure the prisoner and search him. The Iraqi was uninjured and did in fact have a number of sketches of our positions.

Day Three, around 11 a.m., an artillery shot came from the southwest impacting about midway down the dam on the front slope. This caused great concern since until this we had only received mortar fire. The men were smart enough to get a back azimuth to the artillery shot and our Air Force combat controller began calling in aircraft to find the gun tubes. We received an additional two rounds that day from what we had determined to be 155mm artillery. As the artillery rounds came in on the dam, all the Iraqi forces moved to the city in the south, Hadithah proper. They then loaded approximately 20 to 30 vehicles and fled further south. This was the last attempt by dismounts to assault our locations. We began to plan for the Iraqis to use a combined arms attack after slamming us for a few days with artillery.

At first light on Day Four, the 2nd Platoon, Co. B BP began to be hit hard by an artillery gun from the southwest, an artillery gun from the northeast and heavy mortars from just south of the dam. Within minutes, all three pieces had zeroed in on 2nd platoon and forced them to withdraw back inside the dam. The Air Force controllers quickly brought in aircraft and located and engaged the artillery piece to the north. We never received any more fire from the north.

My platoon began engaging the mortar position to the south with heavy guns, and we were quickly answered with artillery directed at our location. Within minutes the artillery was impacting inside our perimeter. Throughout the day, artillery continued non-stop, moving from one BP to another up and down the dam. During this barrage, we received more than 100 artillery rounds within the perimeter and more than 350 on the entire dam.

Later on Day Four, as our position was getting hit, an artillery round went over our position and impacted directly in front of the mortar firing position. I remember seeing one of the mortarmen flying up in the air from behind a concrete wall they were using for cover. I immediately called for my driver and medics to prepare to move down to their location. The mortar crew began motioning for a medic and we expected the worst as we moved out. The Iraqi observers must have seen this also as they began firing additional rounds right on the mortar’s location.

I stopped our GMV about 50m short of the location and had everyone dismount. The driver and gunner moved away from the vehicle up against the concrete wall. My medic, another Ranger we had cross trained to augment the platoon medic and myself moved up to the wounded Ranger. The two medics began to work on the Ranger who was unconscious and severely wounded. Every time we heard the artillery fire, we would hug the ground and a split-second later it would impact somewhere around us. My medics quickly stabilized him and we loaded up on a cargo vehicle to move him to the battalion casualty collection point at the center of the dam.

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Once we moved from the mortar’s position, the artillery began focusing on the hill where my platoon was located.  I got my medics and immediately moved back to the BP. On the way back, I got a report from the platoon leader that one of the vehicles had nearly taken a direct hit. The Iraqis had a position dug out to protect a vehicle. We used this to our advantage by pulling one of our gun jeeps into it. My weapons squad leader, a heavy gunner and forward observer manned this position. A 155mm artillery round impacted right on the top lip of the position. The over pressure of the round blew all three men to the rear of the hole and moved the GMV about two feet sideways.  All three were extremely shaken up and a little hard of hearing, but other than that just fine. 

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On Day Five we didn’t receive any artillery rounds. We all believed the aircraft had finally found the gun pieces firing on our location.  Around mid-day the platoon received orders to move down and clear CAS 1 and 2. Once we arrived at the location it was obvious why the Iraqi forces continued to move to these buildings.  Inside we found 12 rooms containing arms rooms and ammunition caches.  Due to the amount of weapons and ammunition we were only able to clear one of the two buildings that day.

On Day Six the artillery began again. This was extremely demoralizing to the platoon.  We all were extremely worn out. Dodging artillery rounds all day and digging all night was really starting to take its toll. Only a few rounds came in this day. Later in the afternoon, we received two M-1 Abrams tanks. They would pass over the dam and continue operations to the north. We also received orders to prepare for Co. B, 3rd Platoon to relieve us that evening and we’d fly back to the airfield we left seven days prior.

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After the week was over, Co. B had used direct fires, 120mm mortars and various aerial platforms to kill or capture more than 230 enemy, 29 T-55 tanks, 3 heavy cargo trucks, 2 motorcycles, 9 S-60s, 4 ZSU 23-2s, 14 various AAA pieces, 28 155mm artillery pieces, 22 82mm mortar, 6 60mm mortars, 8 ammo caches, 10 military boats, and 1 kayak.

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Approved ASSAULT LANDING CREDITS for Operations IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF) and ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) para 7-25, AR 600-80-22

**Copies of the Permanent Orders (PO) may be obtained from the listed unit.  The PO will also be confirmed in the next published Department of the Army General Order (DAGO).

Unit Name

Type of Assault

Period

Location

ORDER/DAGO

Detachment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1845Z 19 October 2001 to 0014Z 20 October 2001

Helmand Desert, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 058-02, dtd 27 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1845Z 19 October 2001 to 0014Z 20 October 2001

Helmand Desert, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 058-02, dtd 27 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company A, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1845Z 19 October 2001 to 0014Z 20 October 2001

Helmand Desert, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 058-02, dtd 27 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company C, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1845Z 19 October 2001 to 0014Z 20 October 2001

Helmand Desert, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 058-02, dtd 27 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company B, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1800Z – 2334Z 13 November 2001

in the vicinity of Alimarden Kan-E-Bagat, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 058-02, dtd 27 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1345-1445Z 25 February 2003

near Chahar Borjak, Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 037-01, dtd 6 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company A, 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1345-1445Z 25 February 2003

near Chahar Borjak, Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 037-01, dtd 6 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company C, 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1345-1445Z 25 February 2003

near Chahar Borjak, Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 037-01, dtd 6 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Company B, 3d Battalion, 504th Infantry

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1345-1445Z 25 February 2003

near Chahar Borjak, Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

HQDA PO 037-01, dtd 6 Feb 04; DAGO pending

Company C, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1830-2230Z 24 March 2003

Northwestern desert region of Iraq, in the vicinity of the town of Al Qaim, near the Syrian boarder

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1830-2230Z 24 March 2003

Northwestern desert region of Iraq, in the vicinity of the town of Al Qaim, near the Syrian boarder

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, 24th Special Tactics Squadron (USAF)

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1830-2230Z 24 March 2003

Northwestern desert region of Iraq, in the vicinity of the town of Al Qaim, near the Syrian boarder

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Company A, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1835Z 28 March 2003 to 1200Z 29 March 2003

At H1 airfield in western Iraq, west of the Haditha Dam and the town of Haditha

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1835Z 28 March 2003 to 1200Z 29 March 2003

At H1 airfield in western Iraq, west of the Haditha Dam and the town of Haditha

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, 27th Engineer Battalion

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1835Z 28 March 2003 to 1200Z 29 March 2003

At H1 airfield in western Iraq, west of the Haditha Dam and the town of Haditha

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

Detachment, 24th Special Tactics Squadron (USAF)

Parachute (see notes 1 & 2)

1835Z 28 March 2003 to 1200Z 29 March 2003

At H1 airfield in western Iraq, west of the Haditha Dam and the town of Haditha

HQDA PO 257-03, dtd 13 Sep 04; DAGO pending

NOTE 1:  Orders awarding the Combat Parachutist Badge may be issued to those service members who participated in the combat jump and are authorized the Parachutist Badge.

NOTE 2:  In accordance with paragraph 6-8, AR 600-8-22, the Arrowhead Device, which denotes participation in a combat parachute jump, helicopter assault landing, combat glider landing, or amphibious assault landing, will be worn on the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) Expeditionary Medal.